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Simurgh


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Simurgh

Simurgh (pronounced:ˌ/sɪˈmərg/ Persian: سیمرغ sɪmorγ), also spelled simorgh, simorg, simurg, simoorg, simorq or simourv, is an Iranian benevolent, mythical bird. It is sometimes equated with other mythological birds such as a "griffin" or "phoenix" (Persian: ققنوس) (which it shares several similarities with), Persian Homā Persian: هما). Ώ] The figure can be found in all periods of Greater Iranian art and literature and is also evident in the iconography of Georgia, ΐ] medieval Armenia, Α] the Byzantine Empire, Β] and other regions that were within the realm of Persian cultural influence. The name simurgh derives from Middle Persia] Pahlavi sēnmurw Γ] Δ] (and earlier sēnmuruγ), also attested in Middle Persian Pāzand as sīna-mrū. The Middle Persian term derives in turn from Avestan mərəγō Saēnō "the bird Saēna", originally a raptor, likely an eagle, falcon, or sparrowhawk, as can be deduced from the etymological cognate Sanskrit śyenaḥ ("raptor, eagle, bird of prey") that also appears as a divine figure. Saēna is also a personal name, which is root of the name. The word was also borrowed into Armenian as siramarg ‘peacock’.

The most prestigious award given by Fajr International Film Festival, Iran's major annual film festival, is called the Crystal Simorgh, after the mythical creature.


Looting & More

The Simurgh—a mythical bird of the Middle East, often equated with the phoenix, represents the longevity and salience of the region’s cultural heritage. The Simurgh Initiative is a digital humanities project that intends to draw awareness to contemporary events and scholarship surrounding the preservation and destruction of cultural heritage in the Middle East and North Africa. Specifically, The Simurgh Initiative addresses the preservation, destruction, and looting of artifacts in Egypt, Syria and Iraq.

13th Century Ceramic Tile, The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Islamic Art Collection

This website is a multimedia tool that streamlines research in the field, with essays and a resource database for scholars. A glossary of relevant terms and a timeline of the events addressed across these essays provide supplemental information to accommodate all levels of familiarity with these subjects.

The Simurgh Initiative is the product of a 10-person, cross-departmental team of Susquehanna University students, under the direction of Assistant Professor of History and Adjunct Lecturer of Religious Studies, David Heayn-Menendez.

Please complete our contact form if you are interested in contributing to The Simurgh Initiative.


JAMM, Simurgh and Spiritual Symbol of Medicine

How to Cite: Zali A. JAMM, Simurgh and Spiritual Symbol of Medicine, J Arch Mil Med. 2014 2(2):e20634. doi: 10.5812/jamm.20634.

Referring to Simurgh, as the legend of spiritual aspects of health in ancient Persian literature (1), it is genuine, accurate and highly appreciated.

Islamic Republic of Iran Medical Council (IRIMC) that is the representative of almost all Iranian health care professionals has officially presented Simurgh as the Iranian Symbol of Medicine which is aimed to be presented worldwide as well.

The symbol of medicine that is widely accepted worldwide is either Rod of Asclepius with a single snake (2, 3) or the Caduceus with its two snakes and wings (4) which both of them are referred to Greek mythology. While according to ancient Persian literature, Simurgh is a benevolent, mythical flying creature considered to possess the knowledge of all ages and roosted in the Tree of life which its seeds were remedy and cure for all of the diseases. She instructed a surgical procedure to deliver a baby-who became the greatest Persian hero-including, the use of surgical knife, anesthesiology and surgical operation. Simurgh played an important role in the life of the hero. She cured his wounds in the battlefields and gave him valuable comments to achieve important triumph against his chief rivals (5). According to Ferdowsi's epic Shahnameh (5), Simurgh depicts the whole aspects of a physician which makes her eligible to become the most iconic and prestigious symbol of medicine. On 29th of January 2014, the commemorative stamp of Simurgh was unveiled in a ceremony which is held by IRIMC in Tehran that the medical official bodies and elites have attended. In the mentioned ceremony, Simurgh was officially presented as the symbol of medicine in Iran. As the IRIMC President, I strongly urge all health care professionals to assist IRIMC due to inscribe Simurgh in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage list and also make it an approved worldwide symbol of medicine.

References

Khoshdel AR, Lashkari MH. From the Persian Ancient Dramas, Jamm and Simurgh Toward the Modern Military Medicine. J Arch Mil Med. 2013 1(1) : 1 -5

Wilcox RA, Whitham EM. The symbol of modern medicine: why one snake is more than two. Ann Intern Med. 2003 138(8) : 673 -7 [PubMed]

Henry E. Sigerist, A History of Medicine. 1987

Friedlander WJ. The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine. 1992


The Birth of a Hero by the First Caesarean Section

The Simurgh represented the union and served as a mediator and messenger between the Earth and the Sky. She lived in the ‘Tree of Knowledge’ and, when she took flight, her powerful ascent shook the tree's branches so violently that the seeds from every plant that had ever existed, were scattered throughout the world, bringing a wealth of valuable plants to mankind.

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Martini Fisher is a Mythographer and author of many books, including"Time Maps: Matriarchy and the Goddess Culture ” | Check outMartiniFisher.com

Top Image: Image from the Shahnameh of the Simurgh (benevolent Persian mythological creature) carrying Zal (held in her claws) to her nest. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )


Fanart Gallery [ edit | edit source ]


Simurgh

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Simurgh - History

Continuing to examine manuscripts or manuscript fragments and related materials in our blog, we turn to an illustrated paper leaf, now in a private collection, from a Persian Shahnameh or ŠĀH-NĀMA (“Book of Kings”).

The Contents List for our blog shows the range of our explorations. Our Galleries of Scripts on Parade include specimens of script in Persian as well as other languages, Western and non-Western.

The Paper Leaf

The leaf was purchased in the Portabello Road in London circa 1985. The paper is typical of Persian paper from at least the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries CE. One side has text, and the other has both text and inset illustration. The ensemble probably dates from the 19th century, with acquired damage of various kinds, including unevenly trimmed edges.

Private Collection, Leaf from a Persian Shanameh. Simurgh and Zal.

The Shahnameh

This long epic poem, which the Persian poet Abul-Qâsem Ferdowsi Tusi or Ferdowsi (circa 329 – 411 AH / 940 – 1010 CE) began to compose circa 977 and completed on 8 March 1010 CE, forms a major work of world literature. It recounts in more than 50,000 couplets the history of the kings and heroes of Persia from mythical times to the overthrow of the Sassanids by the Arabs in the middle of the 7th century.

Several episodes describe encounters between the benevolent mythical, phoenix-like creature Simurgh and Zāl or Zaal, the legendary prince who, born with white hair, grew into a heroic warrior king. This illustration shows the gigantic creature with the man in adulthood.

This creature had rescued him as an infant when his parents, in fear of his albino appearance, had abandoned him on the mountain Alborz, where Simurgh dwelled. She raised him as her own and taught him wisdom. After Zāl’s return to his kingdom and the world of mankind, he summoned Simurgh’s expertise for aid when his wife Rudaba was undergoing prolonged labor in childbirth — leading to the birth of the great hero Rostam. That aid took the form of instructing Zāl how to perform a caesarean section.

Illustrations in Manuscripts

The long tradition of illustrations for the Shahnameh or Šāh-nāma is richly varied, in books and other visual arts, and in Persian and other spheres. We learn that the documented history of its illustration in manuscripts begins circa 1300 “in the Il-khanid period (1256–1353), coinciding with the start of the canonical history of Persian painting”. There developed varied approaches to the choices of episodes illustrated, the positioning of the illustrations upon the leaves and at regular or irregular intervals through the course of the volumes, the manner of depicting a given episode, and artistic license. In sum, “there was no prescribed manner for depicting the same episode”, and “there was no fixed set of Šāh-nāma illustrations”. From these rich origins developed the unfolding traditions of manuscript illustration for this text in later dynasties and regions, Persian and other.

Among the very most magnificent representatives of the tradition is the now-dismembered and dispersed Shahnamen of Shah Tahmasp, made at Tabriz by many artists circa 1525–1530 CE and completed for Shah Tahmasp (1514–1576). That manuscript, preserved in multiple collections, probably originally comprised two volumes with some 280 large folios and 190 illustrations. Some collections exhibit online a range of its illustrations, as with the 10 folios in the Houghton Shahnameh and some of the 78 illustrated pages at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

That the manuscript tradition could continue to flourish into the 19th century (and beyond) is demonstrated by the copy at the Morgan Library & Museum, as MS H. 9, made probably in Shīrāz, Iran, between 1852 and 1856.

Perhaps needless to say, at various times in the widespread transmission of the text of the Shahnameh and its illustrated versions, non-royal patronage and commercial production also flourished, up to and beyond the history of printing. Given the history of collecting, it seems inevitable that specimens of any standard of quality or otherwise might find their way to fragmented and widely dispersed states of existence or survival. As such, the leaf presented here stands in a very large but vastly separated crowd.

Simurgh and Zāl

The fabulous story of Simurgh and Zāl offers ample scope for vivid depictions. Many expert examples reside in major collections, as with this case at the Metropolitan Museum in New York of circa 1300–1330 CE, aattributed to Northwestern Iran or Baghdad (MMA Rogers Fund 1969, 69.74.1).

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Folio from a Shahnama, circa 1300–30 CE. “Zal is Restored to his Father Sam by the Simurgh”. Image Public Domain.

Or this elaborate version from the famous Tahmasp (or Ṭahmāsp) Shahnamah (see above) at the Freer Gallery in Washington D. C., in which a passing caravan sights Zal with Simurgh as she brings food for him and her nesting chicks.

Washington, D. C., Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, LTS1995.2.46: Tahmasp Shahnamah, folio 62v. Iran, Tabriz, circa 1525 CE. “Zal is Sighted by a Caravan as Simurgh Feeds Her Chicks”. Image Public Domain.

The Illustration on Its Page

On the page of “our” leaf, the illustration stands within the text. The fully painted illustration contrasts with the open background of the script, written in black ink with rubrication in red pigment and set out in 4 columns, with 2 to a couplet and 12 lines of text altogether. The heading in red occupies the space of 2 couplets at the center of line 7. Above the illustration stand 10 lines of text, in which the last line spreads to either side of the stepped riser of the illustrated frame, yielding only the 2 outer columns. Below it stand 2 more lines, of which the first similarly spreads around the stepped descender of the frame.

Both the lines of text and the illustration are partly enclosed by an open-topped framework of ink outlines, which form single (or retraced) vertical bounding lines at both sides and a horizontal line at the bottom. Inset within that frame, the painted illustration stands within its own outlined stepped frame which has block-like risers at top and bottom.

Private Collection, Leaf from a Persian Shanameh. Simurgh and Zal.

Zāl’s name figures in the rubric, and his identifying white hair appears to emerge, like an ear-flap, below his helmet. Simurgh assumes a recognizable but perhaps non-standard form, with huge size, spread wings, long tail dividing into streamer-like tips, and red rooster-like crest.

In the illustration, the pair of figures, man and avian, appear against a painted landscape. Descending from the sky, the creature swoops down from the right to nip or clamp the waistband or sash of the fleeing warrior king, whose outstretched right hand reaches beyond the frame partway into its interspace. With helmet and mustache, the man wears boots, trousers, and a knee-length tunic which partly exposes his white undergarment.

Private Collection, Leaf from a Persian Shanameh. Simurgh and Zal.

Mostly, the recounted relationship between the creature and her adopted Zāl appears benign, but here she grabs him — with both of them poised in mid-flight.

Private Collection, Leaf from a Persian Shanameh. Simurgh and Zal.

Detached from its former manuscript, for now this illustrated leaf must stand for the original whole. Do you know of other leaves from this book and by the same scribe and artist?

Please leave your comments here or Contact Us. Watch this space and the Contents List for more discoveries in our blog.


The Simurg in religion and folklore [ edit | edit source ]

Simurgh, Sassanian Royal Symbol (public domain)

The Simurg appears in many Persian folk tales, where it is described as being a benevolent flying creature, roughly akin to the mythological phoenix. The creature is known by the Persian word سیمرغ‎, which has been variously translated as simurg, simurgh, simorg, simoorg, simorgh, seemorgh, and simourv. In some legends, the Simurg is so old that "it had seen the destruction of the world three times over. The simurgh learned so much by living so long that it is thought to possess the knowledge of all the ages." Ώ] ΐ]

In some myths, the Simurg lives on the imaginary Qaf of Elburz Mountain, on the top of the Gaokerena tree, which contains the seeds of the elixir of immortality. Qaf (also spelled Kāf, Cafcuh, Kafkuh, and قاف‌کوه) is a mythical mountain that is considered to be the highest mountain in the world. ΐ] Α]

In Persian, si means thirty and morgh means bird. Hence, simorgh can be read as “thirty birds.” Β]

The Conference of the Birds [ edit | edit source ]

The Conference of the Birds (opaque watercolor, ink, silver, gold on paper 10 x 4 1/2 in. Metropolitan Museum of Art access. no. 63.210.11)

The Conference of the Birds (also known as the Maqāmāt-uṭ-Ṭuyūr and منطق الطیر) is a Sufi poem written in 1177 by the Attar of Nishapur, a Persian poet and theoretician.

In the poem, all the birds of the world undertake a journey to seek the great Simorgh, whom they hope will be their king. They are led by the hoopoe, the wisest bird. Ultimately, only thirty birds reach the Simorgh's abode, at which point they realize that they have collectively become the Simorgh.

Sholeh Wolpé provides the following summary.

"The poem begins with the birds of the world gathering together to seek a king. The wisest of them, the hoopoe, suggests they undertake a journey to the court of the great Simorgh (a mythical Persian bird roughly equivalent to the Western phoenix), where they can achieve enlightenment. The birds elect the hoopoe as their leader for the quest. Each bird has specific faults, the sort of shortcomings that generally prevent humans from attaining enlightenment. The hawk, for example, says that he would not wish to continue his journey because working for the great earthly king he serves is good enough for him the nightingale suddenly decides that he cannot leave his lover, and so on. The hoopoe answers each bird with allegorical stories and great wisdom. The birds eventually decide to continue and throughout the journey ask questions, which the hoopoe answers with wise anecdotes. The last question concerns the length of the journey, to which the hoopoe describes seven valleys that must be crossed before reaching the abode of the great Simorgh. In Persian, si means thirty, and morgh means bird. Hence, Simorgh can be read as “thirty birds”, and in the end only thirty birds make it to their destination. There they find that they themselves, collectively, have become the great Simorgh." —Wolpé (2014) Β]

Mateo Pérez, a writer for The Game Kitchen, has stated,

"we were indeed inspired by the Mantiq al-Tayr and more specifically by the short description that Jorge Luis Borges wrote in his tale The Approach to Al-Mu'tasim." —Pérez (2014) Γ]

Jorge Luis Borges summarizes the poem by saying,

"The pilgrims go forth in search of an unknown goal this goal, which will be revealed only at the end, must arouse wonder and not be or appear to be merely added on. The author finds his way out of this difficulty with classical elegance adroitly, the searchers are what they seek." —Theophanidis (2015) Δ]

According to Professor Nil Sari, the simurgh's role in this poem represents the tenets of Sufism, a mystical dimension of Islam.

"The simurgh is found as a symbol of Sufism (tasawwuf-Muslim mysticism) in literature, where oneness in existence (Vahdet-i Vucud), that is the idea that there is only one existence in the cosmos, is treated. The only being is God, the Creator. Everything that is seen are his various reflections. "God's essence is diffused throughout the world." The Creator is manifested continuously in different forms therefore, everything seems to be real. Attar and his followers treat this basic idea, represented by the simurgh, for the simurgh is a symbol of God's manifestation. According to the story, the simurgh is nothing but all of the birds. But in order to be able to comprehend this, the birds must pass some stages through the travel of the Soul. The travel, that is the spiritual evolution, is described by means of myths, symbols, and allegories related with the simurgh." —Sari (2000) Ε]

Book of Kings [ edit | edit source ]

Zal, the albino, on the simurg. Shahnamah Firdaws (Book of Kings of Firdaws, The Royal Asiatic society, MS. 239)

Book of Kings (also known as Shahnameh and شاهنامه‎‎) is an epic poem and the national epic of Iran. Ζ] It was written between 977 and 1010 by Ferdowsi, a Persian poet. It includes the story of Zal, a legendary king who was abandoned as an infant because he was albino, only to be rescued by the simurgh.

The Smithsonian Institution provides the following summary.

"Zal, the father of the hero Rustam, is born with a "face like paradise, . but his hair was that of an old man." Born an albino, his snow-white hair is considered an ill omen. His father, Sam, ashamed of the newborn's strange appearance, orders Zal to be left in the mountains where the mythical simurgh makes her home. When the phoenix flies from her nest in search of food for her fledglings, she takes pity on the infant and raises him as her own.

One day, a passing caravan catches sight of the noble youth, "whose body was like a cypress tree, whose chest was like a mountain of silver, and whose waist was as slim as a reed." News of the event reaches Sam, who deeply regrets abandoning his son. Sam and his retinue arrive to find young Zal perched on a mountain peak. At first Zal is reluctant to leave the only home he has ever known, but the magical bird convinces him to go with his father. The phoenix hardens her heart for their parting and gives Zal two of her feathers to burn whenever he needs her help. She urges Zal to "go and see what fate has in store" for him." —Smithsonian Institution Η]

Zādspram’s Anthology [ edit | edit source ]

Zādspram’s Anthology (also known as the Vizīdagīhā ī Zādspram) is a sacred text written by Zādspram, a 9th-century Zoroastrian scholar. ⎖] It includes a description of the Saena bird of Zoroastrian mythology, which was later known as the Simurgh. ⎗] In the anthology, the bird is described as

"resting on the tree of all seeds that grows in the middle of the ocean: when the bird rises from the tree, the motion scatters the seeds into the water, whence they are caught up with the rains and showered back down onto the earth." —Stewart, Mistree, & Sims-Williams (2013) ⎘]

Hippocrates on the simurg on his way to prepare drugs (Falname, Topkapi Palace Museum Library, H. 1703, fol. 38b)

Moral ambiguity [ edit | edit source ]

Although the Simurg is usually depicted as being benevolent, there are also legends in which it is evil or morally ambiguous.

"The simurgh, which comes forth as an important symbol in art and literature, is described and illustrated in two ways in the Turkish-Islamic culture. One is a symbol of goodness and is equivalent to the idea of the good spirit in the pre-Islamic Turkish faith. The other one is a symbol of evil." —Sari (2000) Ε] "The Simurgh is not always depicted as a benevolent ruler and is depicted [as] complacently watching the destruction of the world three times from her nest in the branches of the Tree of Knowledge." —Simurgh restaurant ⎙] "The Simorḡ, protector of Zāl and Rostam, has an evil counterpart called by the same name. She lives on a mountain and looks like a mountain or a black cloud she can carry off crocodiles, panthers and elephants. It is not impossible that both birds are originally identical and the Simorḡ is ambivalent. In the contemptuous description of Zāl’s origin it is said that the Simorḡ spared the child because she could not stomach him." —Encyclopædia Iranica ΐ] "The Sēnmurw has an evil counterpart in the bird Kamak, who is one of the monsters killed by Karšāsp. The SaddarBundahišn gives a description of its activities which are the exact opposite of those of the Sēnmurw: When Kamak appeared he spread his wings over the whole world, all the rain fell on his wings and back into the sea, drought struck the earth, men died, springs, rivers and wells dried up." —Encyclopædia Iranica ΐ]


Simurgh Staff

David Heayn-Menendez, Visiting Assistant Professor of History and Adjunct Lecturer of Religious Studies at Susquehanna University, is a Lewisburg Borough Councilman and Director of of Public Education at Al-Bustan: Seeds of Culture, a Philadelphia based non-profit focused on Middle Eastern culture, arts and language. Heayn-Menendez is also a campaign manager, pedagogy developer, speech writer, and foreign and domestic policy writer.

Heayn-Menendez attended Villanova University for his BA and MA in history and did his MPhil and PhD work at the CUNY Graduate Center. He focuses on the sociocultural and religious history of the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region, both Muslim and Christian, with particular emphasis on conflict and syncretic processes of interfaith and intercultural interaction during times of transformation and transition. This has led him to focus on riots, terrorism, spoliation, and cultural appropriation and assimilation in both the premodern and contemporary MENA region.

Managing Editor – Julianna Whalen

Julianna Whalen is a 2019 graduate of Susquehanna University with a BA in communications studies and minor in museum studies. Whalen has combined her studies with a passion for anthropology and cultural heritage through work with the Penn Museum, Reading Museum, and Pennsylvania History Harvest. Additionally, she co-curated over six exhibitions during her college career, including premiere exhibitions for local artists in Florence, Italy.

Assistant Editor – Emily Hopf

Emily Hopf will graduate from Susquehanna University in May 2020 with a BA in International Studies: Diplomacy, English: Publishing & Editing, with an Honors minor. Emily is Head Designer of the Susquehanna University Common Reading, and has been expanding her digital design experience with web-based projects such as The Simurgh Initiative and freelance graphic design.

Susquehanna University Student Writers
Shelby Karpa
Christina Kleman
Darian Rahnis
Jane Seibert
Renika Weimer

Editorial Assistants
James Bair
Anna Lewis

Contributors
Are you interested in contributing essays, photos, or ideas to The Simurgh Initiative? Please complete our contact form!


Índice

Forma e função Editar

Simurgue é retratada na arte iraniana como uma criatura alada, na forma de um pássaro, gigante o suficiente para carregar um elefante ou uma baleia. Ela aparece como uma espécie de pavão com a cabeça de um cão e as garras de um leão, no entanto, às vezes também com um rosto humano. A Simurgue é inerentemente benevolente e evidentemente do sexo feminino. Sendo uma parte mamífera, ela amamenta seus filhotes. Ela tem uma inimizade com cobras e seu habitat natural é um local com água em abundância. Suas penas são descritas sendo da cor de cobre, e apesar de ter sido inicialmente descrita como sendo um cão-pássaro, mais tarde, mostrou-se tanto com a cabeça de um homem, quanto com a de cão.

"Si-", o primeiro elemento do nome, está relacionado na etimologia antiga ao respectivo Persa Moderno si "trinta". Embora este prefixo não esteja historicamente relacionado com a origem do nome Simurgue, "trinta" foi no entanto a base de lendas que incorporam esse número como, por exemplo, a de que a Simurgue era tão grande quanto trinta aves ou teve trinta cores (siræng).

Lendas iranianas consideram a criatura tão velha que viu a destruição do Mundo por três vezes. A Simurgue aprendeu muito por viver tanto tempo e considera-se que possui o conhecimento de todas as Eras. Em uma lenda, afirma-se que o Simurgue vive 1.700 anos antes de mergulhar-se em chamas (muito parecido com a Fênix).

A Simurgue era considerada a purificadora da terra e das águas e, consequentemente, concedia a fertilidade. A criatura representava a união entre a terra e o céu, servindo como mediador e mensageiro entre os dois. A Simurgue abrigava-se na Gaokerena, o Hom (avéstico: Haoma), Árvore da Vida, que fica no meio do mar primordial Vourukhasa. A planta, que é um potente remédio, é chamado de tudo-cura, e as sementes de todas as plantas são depositadas sobre ele. Quando a Simurgue levanta voo, as folhas da árvore da vida sacodem fazendo todas as sementes de cada planta caírem. Estas sementes flutuam ao redor do mundo sobre os ventos de Vayu-Vata e as chuvas de Tishtrya, e segundo a cosmologia, enraizam-se para tornarem-se cada tipo de planta que já viveu, e curando todas as doenças da humanidade.

A relação entre a Simurgue e Hom e é extremamente íntima. Como a Simurgue, Hom é representado como um mensageiro e com a essência da pureza que pode curar qualquer doença ou ferimento. HOM é a essência da divindade, uma propriedade que partilha com o Simurgue. O Hōm vai além da condução de farr(ah) (Persa Médio: khwarrah, avéstico: khvarenah, kavaēm kharēno) "glória divina" ou "fortuna". Farrah por sua vez representa o Direito divino dos reis que era o fundamento da autoridade do rei.

Ele aparece como um pássaro, descansando sobre a cabeça ou os ombros de aspirantes a reis e clérigos, indicando a aceitação de Aúra-Masda do indivíduo como seu representante divino na Terra. Para o povo, Barã envolve com a fortuna / glória "ao redor da casa do adorador, a riqueza em gado, como o grande pássaro Saena, assim como as nuvens carregadas cobrem as grandes montanhas" (cf Iaste 14,41,. As chuvas de Tistria). Como a Simurgue, Farrah também está associado com as águas do Vourucaxa (Iaste 19,51, .56-57). Em Iaste 12.17 a árvore de Simurgue (Saēna) fica no meio do mar Vourukaša, que é um potente medicamento chamado tudo-cura, e as sementes de todas as plantas são depositadas sobre ele.

No Épica dos Reis Editar

A Simurgue fez a sua aparição mais famosa no épico de Ferdusi, Épica dos Reis, onde o seu envolvimento com o Príncipe Zal é descrito. De acordo com o Épica dos Reis, Zal, filho de Saam, nasceu albino. Quando Saam viu seu filho albino presumiu que a criança era prole de demônios e abandonou a criança na montanha Alborz.

O choro da criança foi levado aos ouvidos da compassiva Simurgue, que buscou a criança e a criou como se fosse sua. Zal foi ensinado com muita sabedoria pela amorosa Simurgue, que possui todo o conhecimento, mas o tempo passou e ele se transformou em um homem e ansiava para se juntar ao mundo dos homens. Embora a Simurgue estivesse muito triste, ela lhe deu três penas de ouro para que ele pudesse queimar se ele precisasse de sua ajuda.

Ao retornar a seu reino, Zal se apaixonou e se casou com a bela Rudaba. Quando chegou a hora de seu filho nascer, o parto foi longo e terrível Zal estava certo de que sua esposa iria morrer no trabalho de parto. Rudaba estava perto da morte quando Zal decidiu convocar a Simurgue. A Simurgue apareceu e o instruiu sobre como realizar uma cesariana poupando Rudaba e a criança, que se tornou um dos maiores heróis persas, Rustã. Simurgue também aparece na história dos Sete Julgamentos de Esfandiar e na história de Rustã e Esfandiar.

No folclore Azeri Editar

Simurgue também atende pelo nome de Zunrude (Esmeralda). Era um antigo conto sobre Malique Mamade, filho de um dos reis mais ricos do Azerbaijão. Esse rei tinha um grande jardim. No centro deste jardim havia uma macieira mágica que produzia maçãs todos os dias. Um gigante feio chamado Div decide roubar todas as maçãs, todas as noites. O rei enviou Malique Mamade e seus irmãos mais velhos para lutar contra o gigante. No meio deste conto Malique Mamade salva os bebês de Simurgue de um dragão. Simurgue em gratidão a Malique Mamade decide ajudá-lo. Quando Malique Mamade quer passar do Mundo das Sombras para o Mundo da Luz Simurgue pede-lhe para providenciar 40 carcaças de carne e 40 odres cheios de água. Quando Simurgue põe água na sua asa esquerda e carne na sua asa direita Malique Mamade é capaz de entrar no Mundo da Luz.

Na poesia Sufi Editar

Nas literaturas persas Clássica e Moderna a Simorg é frequentemente mencionado, em especial como uma metáfora para Deus no misticismo sufi. No século 12 em A Conferência dos Pássaros, o poeta sufi iraniano Attar de Nixapur escreveu sobre um bando de pássaros peregrinos em busca da Simurgue. De acordo com o conto do poeta, a Simurgue tem trinta furos em seu bico e aspirava o vento através deles, sempre que ela estava com fome. Os animais ouviam uma música bonita e reuniam-se no pico de uma montanha, onde eram comidos pela Simurgue.

Através da assimilação cultural, a Simurgue foi introduzida ao mundo de língua árabe, onde o conceito foi confundido com outras aves míticas árabes como o Goguenus, um pássaro que tem uma relação mítica com a tamareira, [ 5 ] e mais adiante com o Rukh (a origem da palavra "Roca").

No folclore Curdo Editar

A palavra Simurgue é encurtada para Sīmīr na língua curda. O estudioso Trever cita dois contos curdos sobre o pássaro. Estas versões tem um fundo em comum com as histórias iranianas de Simorg. Em um dos contos, um herói salva os filhotes de Simurgue matando uma cobra que estava subindo na árvore para devorá-los. Como recompensa Sīmīr (Simurgue) lhe dá três de suas penas, que o herói pode usar para pedir por sua ajuda ao queimá-las. Mais tarde, o herói usa as penas, e Simurgue transporta-o para uma terra distante. Em outro conto, Simurgue leva o herói para fora do inferno aqui Simurgue amamenta sua cria, um traço que coincide com a descrição da Simurgue no livro de Zdspram, do Persa Médio. Em outro conto, Simurgue alimenta o herói na jornada, enquanto o herói alimenta Simirugh com pedaços de gordura de ovelha.



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