Jaipur Column, Delhi

Jaipur Column, Delhi

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Jaipur Column, Delhi

This picture shows Jaipur Column, in the grounds of Rashtrapati Bhavan, now the residence of the President of India. During the Second World War the palace was known as the Star of India, and was the residence of the Viceroy.

Many thanks to Ken Creed for sending us these pictures, which were taken by his wife's uncle Terry Ruff during his time with No.357 Squadron, a special operations unit that operated over Burma, Malaya and Sumatra.

The Mystery of Delhi’s Iron Pillar, the Wishing Pillar That Refuses To Rust

The Iron Pillar, housed in the same complex as one of Delhi’s most famous monuments, the Qutub Minar, dates back to AD 402 and has continued to capture the imagination of scientists since the early 1900s, owing to its resistance to rust.

He stood with his back firmly against the tall and tapering iron pillar, trying to hug it and willing his fingers to touch while another group of men and women looked on awaiting their turn. He almost made it – and then he didn’t, and a rising whoop from his friends quickly petered into a disappointed sigh. This scene has been the tradition around this somewhat nondescript iron pillar for years.

“I heard that if you can encircle the pillar with your hands, your wish will come true,” Vishal says, looking a bit disappointed that he could not complete the task. Tourist guides in the area will also tell visitors that if they can wrap their arms around the pillar and make their fingers touch, it is a sign of faithfulness to their lovers. “We came here to see the Qutub Minar. We didn’t know much about this pillar, so this was an interesting bonus,” Vishal adds.

This six-tonne, seven-metre-tall (24-foot-tall) iron pillar might be an afterthought for visitors to the Qutub complex that also houses the Qutub Minar – which is among Delhi’s must-see monuments – but it has been a historical enigma for Indian and international scientific minds since 1912.

Positioned right in the middle of the courtyard of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, the pillar is nothing out of the ordinary the tapering black column could be just another piece of architecture from ancient India. There is a deep socket on the decorative top of the pillar, where a statue of Lord Garuda, or the ‘Sun Bird’, might have been embedded – according to the Delhi Tourism website – a feature common to many such pillars of the time. However, when you look close, you can perhaps see it for the miracle it is – not just in its fabled wish-granting capabilities but its extraordinary feat of resisting corrosion for over 1,600 years in the face of the extreme temperatures and rising pollution in the Indian capital.

Some theories state that the reason for this resistance stems from the fact that the Iron Pillar has a high content of phosphorus and absolutely no presence of sulphur or magnesium. Delhi Tourism explains the possible reason why this pillar has not rusted even after a thousand years: “Environmental effects also reveal that the pillar was made to withstand a relative humidity of about 70 percent, which is appropriate as the climate in Delhi, despite experiencing four seasons in a year, does not ever exceed that limit.”

The pillar – made of 98 percent wrought iron – was included among the Out-of-Place Artefacts (OOPArts) – a term applied to prehistoric objects from around the world that show technological advancement beyond the time when they were built. And after years of many theories, including a belief that it might have been constructed with some futuristic or non-earthly metal, in 2003, experts at the Indian Institute of Technology cracked the mystery of the pillar’s resistance to rust.

Metallurgists at Kanpur IIT attributed the pillar’s resistance to rust to a thin layer of misawite, a compound of iron, oxygen and hydrogen. In a report published in the journal Current Science, R Balasubramanian, co-author of the study, said the pillar is “a living testimony to the skill of metallurgists of ancient India”.

However, the identity of King Chandra remains a mystery, although he is generally identified as the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II. There is also much confusion around the origins of the pillar – some say it’s from the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh – or who moved it to Delhi. Delhi Tourism believes the pillar was built by Chandragupta II, who ruled between 375 BC and 415 BC. According to its website, it was established in the front courtyard, facing a Vishnu temple on top of a small hillock called Vishnupada, at Udayagiri in Madhya Pradesh, and was later moved by Sultan Iltutmish in 1233 from its original location to the Qutub complex in South Delhi.

“There is an interesting legend connecting the name ‘Dilli’ [local pronunciation of the city], or ‘Delhi’, with a Tomara king and the famous Iron Pillar. Local legend has it that the Iron Pillar was designed to be the standard of Vishnu and meant to be implanted into the hood of the celestial serpent on which the earth rests. At the same time, a curse was pronounced on anyone who tampered with it. The Tomara prince, who had the pillar installed in Delhi, wanted to make sure that it had been planted deep enough to enter the hood and had it dug up,” says Tanvi Bikhchandani, who used to lead walks with the group Delhi Heritage Walks.

“The base was found smeared with the serpent’s blood. The curse took its course, and the Tomara Dynasty declined. The event was recorded in a verse: ‘Kelee to dheelee bhaee, Tomara bhava mat heen’ or ‘the pillar was loosened, and the Tomar lost his head.’ Thus some people argue that ‘Dilli’ is a pun on the word ‘dheele’, meaning ‘loose’.”

The Iron Pillar of Delhi is a masterpiece, an archaeological marvel, but also a melting point of the past and the present, history and science, and imagination and urban legends.

1. New Delhi and Delhi are two different places


Surprising fact about Delhi right? But yes it&rsquos true, New Delhi and Delhi are two different places altogether. With New Delhi serving as the capital of the country and Delhi being the more substantial city within which New Delhi is a &lsquoterritory&rsquo designed by the British while shifting the money from Calcutta to Delhi. New Delhi is known to be a seat to the three arms of the Government of India &ndash Legislative, Executive and the Judiciary.

10 Jaipur Monuments for History & Architecture Lovers

It is impossible to truly whet your appetite for sightseeing in Jaipur without providing a sneak peek into some of the most famous monuments in Jaipur. Detailed below is all the relevant information you need pertaining to historical sites in the Pink City.

1. Hawa Mahal

Hawa Mahal is a monument like no other in India or the world. Completed in 1799 and constructed with pink and red sandstone the exteriors of this palace stand out for the fact that it closely resembles the honeycomb of a beehive with 953 “Jharokhas” or small windows that are brilliantly accentuated with exquisite latticework.

  • Location: Hawa Mahal Road
  • Things to Do: Watch the Hawa Mahal brilliantly lit up at night or visit during the daytime to find its chambers illuminated with varied colours even as the sunlight streams in through its many coloured glasswork windows.
  • Entry Fee: INR 50 for Indian Nationals, INR 200 for Foreigners

2. Amer Fort

Built-in 1592 by Raja Man Singh Amer Fort is located in Amer, Rajasthan which is a part of Jaipur by extension. The Fort stands out for its Hindu characteristics in terms of architecture and design and closely resembles a grand temple.

The relevance of Amer Fort as one of many historical monuments in Jaipur stems from the fact that it was long considered the stronghold of the Rajput Maharajas Rajasthan’s longest reigning royal family.

  • Location: Devisinghpura
  • Things to Do: Take a stroll through the 4 wondrous courtyards at Amer Fort and soak in the many sights of this UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Entry Fee: INR 100 for Indian Nationals, INR 500 for Foreigners

3. City Palace

example of the tangible legacy of the Rajput kings. The City Palace boasts of 9 impressive structures namely the Govind Dev Ji temple, the Maharani Palace, the Bagghi Khana, Diwan-E-Khas, Diwan-E-Aam, Pritam Niwas Chowk, the Entrance Gates, the Chandra Mahal and Mubarak Mahal.

  • Location: Jaleb Chowk
  • Things to Do: Bearing in mind that City Palace is a palatial complex comprising of 9 impressive structures there is a lot of sights to see.
  • Entry Fee: INR 75 for Indian Nationals, INR 300 for Foreigners

4. Jantar Mantar

Jaipur has its very own Jantar Mantar and similar to the Jantar Mantar in Delhi this is one of the most famous monuments of Jaipur. The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is an equinoctial sundial and is one of 5 such structures in India all built by Maharaja Jai Singh II between 1724 and 1735.

These Jantar Mantars were built to tabulate astronomical tables and track the sun, the moon and planetary movements.

  • Location: Kanwar Nagar
  • Things to Do: Learn more about this working observatory and the astronomical instruments that were in use in the 18 th Century.
  • Entry Fee: INR 50 for Indian Nationals, INR 200 for Foreigners

5. Jaigarh Fort

Located on the promontory known as “Cheel Ka Teela” or Hill of Eagles on the Aravalli Range Jaigarh Fort is yet another example of magnificent historical monuments in Jaipur. This fort is not only sought out for its impressive architectural qualities but also for the fact that it provides scenic views of the Aravalli Range and the Amber Fort down below.

  • Location: Devisinghpura
  • Things to Do: Be sure to look out for the Jaivana cannon the world’s oldest cannon set on wheels. Explore Laxmi Vilas, Lalit Mandir, Aram Mandir and Vilas Mandir all of which form the Jaigarh Fort complex.
  • Entry Fee: INR 35 for Indian Nationals, INR 85 for Foreigners

6. Nahargarh Fort

Built-in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II and extended over the years Nahargarh Fort in Jaipur is of great historical significance. This fort featured in the treaties drawn up between the Rajput and Maratha forces in the 18 th century as a means of preventing war and conflict. Nahargarh Fort provides an enchanting view of Jaipur city which is one of the reasons it was a retreat residence when in use.

  • Location: Krishna Nagar
  • Things to Do: Explore Madhavendra Palace or enjoy the view of Jaipur city from the terrace of Nahargarh Fort.
  • Entry Fee: INR 50 for Indian Nationals, INR 200 for Foreigners

7. Albert Hall

Albert Hall is both a museum and a monument of historical importance in Jaipur. Opened to the public in 1887 the Albert Hall has the distinction of having its foundation stone laid down by King Edward II. Albert Hall is an impressive structure from the outside however like any good museum there is so much more to discover inside.

  • Location: Museum Road
  • Things to Do: View an awe-inspiring and enlightening collection of artefacts, paintings, sculptures, crystal works, and metal works contained within this historic museum.
  • Entry Fee: INR 40 for Indian Nationals, INR 200 for Foreigners

8. Sisodia Rani Garden & Palace

Sisodia Rani Garden & Palace

History is alive and well in Jaipur and that is the first impression you get at Sisodia Rani Garden and Palace. The greenery all around brings this historical monument of Jaipur to life and there is no dearth of beauty and serenity here. Built-in 1728 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II Sisodia Rani Garden and Palace are testaments to the aesthetics of Jaipur in the times of Rajput royalty.

  • Location: Lal Dungri
  • Things to Do: Explore the multi-level gardens, green lawns, fountains, painted pavilions and watercourses at Sisodia Rani Garden and Palace.
  • Entry Fee: INR 50 for Indian Nationals, INR 200 for Foreigners

9. Jal Mahal

The Jal Mahal or “Water Palace” when translated into English gets its name from the fact that it is situated in the middle of Man Sagar Lake of Jaipur City. The location of this palace sets it apart from any other historical structure in the city and the Jal Mahal also happens to be one of the most admired and famous monuments of Jaipur.

  • Location: Amer Road
  • Things to Do: The interiors of this palace are not open to the public but the pathways outside is a popular place to take pictures and enjoy the view of the exteriors of the palace or the pristine MAN Sagar Lake.
  • Entry Fee: NA

10. Birla Temple

One of many Birla Temples around the country the Birla Temple in Jaipur isn’t a historic monument per se. However it does qualify as one of the most famous monuments of Jaipur owing to the visitor footfall. Located on the Moti Dungari Hill the temple is also known as the Lakshmi Narayan Temple.

  • Location: Shanti Path
  • Things to Do: Offer prayers at the temple or enjoy its architectural beauty
  • Entry Fee: NA

In conclusion it is easy to see that Jaipur is a tourist’s paradise especially for those looking for a deeper insight into the local history and culture. Architectural excellence is the highlight of any visit to Jaipur and this becomes evident with a visit to any one of the Jaipur monuments listed above. Feel free to add to the conversation by letting us know about your experiences at any one of these historical monuments in the comments section below.

Red Fort

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Red Fort, also called Lal Qalʿah, also spelled Lal Kila or Lal Qila, Mughal fort in Old Delhi, India. It was built by Shah Jahān in the mid-17th century and remains a major tourist attraction. The fort was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007.

The fort’s massive red sandstone walls, which stand 75 feet (23 metres) high, enclose a complex of palaces and entertainment halls, projecting balconies, baths and indoor canals, and geometrical gardens, as well as an ornate mosque. Among the most famous structures of the complex are the Hall of Public Audience ( Diwan-i-Am), which has 60 red sandstone pillars supporting a flat roof, and the Hall of Private Audience ( Diwan-i-Khas), which is smaller, with a pavilion of white marble.

An earlier red fort had been built in Old Delhi in the 11th century by the Tomara king Anangapala. The Quṭb Mosque now stands on the site.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna, Senior Editor.

Advertisement Writing Class 12 Format, Examples

An Advertisement is a kind of public notice asking for or offering services or buying and selling property, goods etc., or providing information about missing persons, pets, etc.

♦ There are two kinds of advertisements:

♦ Classified Advertisements:
You will come across classified advertisements in the columns of newspapers and magazines. Important features of a Classified Advertisement are:

  • No blocks, no designs and the language to be factual.
  • Simple, formal and to the point.
  • Comprehensive, yet must not leave any important matter.
  • Never be too lengthy (confine to the word limit).

♦ Important Tips to be followed
♦ Classified advertisements

  1. Clearly state the category at the top, e.g., Tor Sale’, ‘To Let’, etc.
  2. Give all necessary details in points using commAnswer:
  3. Give contact address, name and telephone number.
  4. Put the matter in a box.

♦ Kinds of Classified Advertisements

  1. Situation Vacant/Wanted
  2. Lost and found
  3. Sale and purchase
  4. Accommodation wanted
  5. Educational
  6. Placement services
  7. Matrimonial
  8. To Let
  9. Tuitions
  10. Packers and Movers
  11. Kennel
  12. Travels and Tours

♦ Necessary Information
♦ Situation Vacant

  • Specify the post and number of vacancies
  • Qualities of the person required
  • Name of the Company (optional)
  • Age and sex of the candidate
  • Payscale and perks
  • Mode of applying
  • Contact address and phone number
  • Type of accommodation, Number of rooms/ floor
  • Whether it is independent or an apartment.
  • Rent expected
  • Type of tenant required: Bank employee / small family.
  • Whom and when to contact.
  • Contact address/phone number
  • Breed of dog
  • Age
  • Colour
  • Training
  • Price expected
  • Contact address and phone number
  • Specify the services
  • Give reason why you should be given a chance
  • Area of work
  • Whom to contact
  • Contact address and phone number
  • Make Maruti/Hyundai/Honda, etc.
  • Model/colour/accessories/year of manufacture/mileage
  • Condition
  • Ownership details
  • Price expected
  • Contact address/phone number

♦ Property For Sale
♦ Plot for sale:

  • Location: where it is
  • Area: In sQuestion metres/yards
  • Name of the development authority
  • Price expected
  • Contact address/ phone number
  • Begin with LOST/FOUND
  • Description of the article
  • When & where the article was lost/found
  • Reward for finding it
  • Contact address and phone number
  • Name of the agency
  • Destinations and durations
  • Details of the package
  • Discounts, if any
  • Contact address/phone number
  • Classes and subjects
  • Special qualities of the tutor
  • Qualifications and experience of the tutor
  • Previous results of his/her students
  • Contact address/ phone number
  • Type of accommodation. No. of rooms/floor
  • Whether it is independent or an apartment
  • Price expected/negotiable
  • Location—where it is
  • Area: In sq. metres/ yards
  • Name of the development authority
  • Whom and when to contact
  • Contact address/phone number

♦ Commercial Advertisements:
♦ Commercial or Display Advertisements

  • These are designed for commercial purposes.
  • Require more space, hence are costly. Must be attractive with visuals, catchy phrases and slogans
  • Must be attractive with a catchy caption, heading or sub-headings.
  • Figurative language (alliteration and metaphors especially).
  • The proportionate spacing of fonts with different sizes.
  • Usually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines, witty expressions, pictures or sketches.
  • Special offers or discount, if any.
  • Details of the product or event given in a clear, precise way.
  • Give name, contact number and address of the advertiser.
  • Present the matter in a box.

♦ Previous Years’ CBSE Examination Questions

♦ Short Answer Tvpe Questions

Question 1.
You are Manisha of 10, Rajaji Nagar, Bangalore. You want a Maths teacher for your son who is a class 10 student. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words stating your requirements. (Delhi 2009)

Question 2.
You want to sell your newly built flat. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words to be inserted in the classified columns of ‘The Hindu’ giving all necessary details. You are Niranjan, 247, J.P. Nagar, Bengaluru. (All India 2009)

Question 3.
You are General Manager of Ivy Software Solutions, Agra Cantt, Agra. You need a software engineer for your organisation. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Times of India’ under the classified columns. (Delhi 2010)

Question 4.
You are the General Manager of E.V.L. Company which requires posh bungalows in company lease, as guest houses. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words under classified columns to be published in ‘The New Indian Express’.

Question 5.
Your younger brother aged 5 has been missing for the last three days. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words for the Missing Persons column of a local newspaper. You are Ram/Rama. Contact number 931070000. (Comptt. Delhi)

Question 6.
You are Ramanuj am/Revathi, a student of Class XII, St. Xavier’s School, Jhansi. You are interested in giving tuition in Maths to one or two students of class VIII. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words for a local newspaper. (Comptt. All India)

Question 7.
You are Uttarq/Umesh, a visually challenged person, running a telephone booth in the Central Market, Delhi. Give a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words for a telephone operator in ‘Situation Vacant’ column of Delhi Times, offering attractive remuneration. (Comptt. All India 2011)

Situation Vacant Telephone

Question 8.
You want to rent out your newly constructed flat in the heart of the city. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Deccan Herald’, Bangalore under classified columns. Give all the necessary details. You are Mohan/Mahima of Jayanagar, Bengaluru. (Delhi 2011)

Question 9.
You are Mohan/Mohini, General Manager of PJC. Industries, Hyderabad. You need an accountant for your company. Draft, in not more than 50 words, an advertisement to be published in ‘The Hindu’ in classified columns. (All India 2012)

Question 10.
You are Ratan/Rani, General Manager of Hotel Green Park, Lucknow. You need a receptionist for your hotel. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘Hindustan Times’, Lucknow, calling for applications. (All India 2012)

Question 11.
You are Keshav/Karuna, interested in purchasing a house in Bengaluru. Draft in not more than 50 words an advertisement to be published in the classified column of a local daily giving the details of your requirement. (Comptt. Delhi 2012)

Question 12.
You are Jay/Jaya, interested in purchasing a second-hand flat. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in the classified column of a local daily giving the details of your requirement. Your contact number is 9012341234. (Comptt. All India 2012)

Question 13.
You have lost your leather wallet containing your Examination Entry Ticket for Class XII while travelling by bus from Banashankari to M.G.Road in Bangalore. Write a notice in not more than 50 words, to be published in ‘Deccan Herald’. You are Pranav/Parveen, 12 Gandhi Road, Bengaluru. (All India 2012)

Question 14.
You are General Manager, Hotel Dosa, Gur- gaon. You need a lady Front Office Assistant with sound knowledge of computers. She must be a graduate and good in communication skills with pleasing manners. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in Gurgaon Times. (Delhi 2013)

Question 15.
You have a three-bedroom flat in Dwarka, which you want to let out on rent. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in The Times of India’ under classified columns. Contact 2758902. (All India 2012)

Question 16.
You possess an acre of land in the heart of the city. You want to dispose of this property since you have decided to buy a flat. Write an advertisement to be published in a national daily, giving all the necessary details. You are Krishan of Moti Nagar, Delhi. (Delhi 2014)

Question 17.
You would like to let out a portion of your independent house for office use. Write an advertisement for the classified columns of the local newspaper giving all the necessary details. Write the advertisement in not more than 50 words. (Delhi 2014)

Question 18.
You want to sell off your motorbike which you have been using for five years since you have decided to buy a car. Write an advertisement, in not more than 50 words, to be published under the classified columns of a national daily. Furnish all the necessary details. (Delhi 2014)

Question 19.
Your school, Akash Public school, Agra needs a canteen manager. On behalf of the Principal, write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a local daily. Mention the educational and professional qualifications, other qualities required in the manager, who to apply to and the last date for the receipt of applications. (All India 2015)

Question 20. You require a teacher to teach maths and science to your son at home who is in class 10. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words giving all your requirements. You are Arun/Aruna. Contact No. 93xxxxxxxx.
(Comptt. All India 2014)

Question 21.
You have retired from a bank after 30 years of service and are looking for a job. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the situation wanted column of a local daily giving your qualifications, experience and the kind of job expected. You are Sunil/Sita, 4, Bank Enclave, (Delhi 2014)

Question 22.
You have lost an expensive watch probably in the market. Write an advertisement for the ‘Lost and Found’ column of a local newspaper giving all the relevant details. Offer a reward also. Write the advertisement in about 50 words. You are Gopal/Gopa, 4 Manav Road, Kanpur. (Comptt. Delhi 2014)

Question 23.
You have cleared your IIT Entrance Exam and so want to sell off the reading material you have with you. Write an advertisement to be placed in the ‘For Sale’ columns of a local daily giving all details of the material you have with you in not more than 50 words. You are Mohan/Mohini. Contact No. 9811111111. (Comptt. Delhi 2014)

Question 24.
Principal, Sunrise Global School, Agra requires a receptionist for her school. Draft a suitable advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a national newspaper giving all the necessary details of qualifications and experience required in the receptionist. (Delhi 2014)

Question 25.
You need to buy a flat. Draft a suitable advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a local newspaper giving all the necessary details of your requirement. You are Karan/Karuna, M 114, Mall Road, Delhi. (Delhi 2014)

Question 26.
You are Karan Kumar/Karuna Bajaj, a leading lawyer practising in Surat. You want to buy an independent house at City Light Road to be used as office-cum-residence. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the classified columns of a local newspaper. You can be contacted at 45645678. (All India 2014)

Question 27.
You are Karan/Karuna of M 114, Mall Road, Delhi. You are a civil engineer and have recently returned from UAE. You are looking for a suitable job in India. Draft an advertisement for the same in about 50 words. Give details of your qualifications, experience, nature of job and expected remuneration. (All India 2014)

Question 28.
Situation Wanted Qualified civil engineer recently returned from UAE seeks suitable job in India. Done Civil Engineering from Jamia Milia University. Fifteen years experience of working in construction field (commercial) in reputed firms in India and UAE. Expected remuneration—negotiable. Contact: Karan, M 114, Mall Road, (Delhi 2014)

Question 29.
Write an advertisement, as Sanjay Gupta, offering Do not exceed 50 words. Contact: xxxxxx (Comptt. All India 2014)

Question 30.
You want to sell your car. Write an advertisement for the ‘sale and purchase ‘ column of a local newspaper giving all relevant details. Write the advertisement in about 50 words. Contact no. xxxxxx. (Comptt. All India 2014)

Question 31.
You VikranySonia, an Hon’s graduate in history with specialization in Medieval India. You are well acquainted with places of historical interest in Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. You are looking for the job of tourist guide. Write an advertisement in about 50 words for the situations wanted column of a local newspaper. Your contact no. 999751234. (Delhi 2014)

Question 32.
You are Vikrain/Sonia, an electronics engineer who has recently returned from the U.S. and looking for a suitable job in the IT industry. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for

Question 33.
You are Ran/RaJani. Draft a classified advertisement, in not more than 50 words, for the purchase of a house,, giving all necessary details of your requirement. You can be contacted at 45678900. (Comptt. All India 2014)

Question 34.
You are Ran/Rajani. Draft a classified advertisement, in not more than 50 words, to be published in India Times for the sale of a used motor car giving all the necessary details. You can be contacted at 12345679. (Comptt. Delhi 2014)

8 Interesting Facts About Jantar Mantar, Delhi

As the name suggests that Jantar Mantar means calculation instruments. It comprises of two separate words such as Jantar means instruments and Mantar means formulas. This Jaipur observatory is amongst all the five and listed as the UNESCO world heritage site. It attracts numerous visitors every day. It contains fourteen major geometric machines, which were made of concrete. These devices were used in olden days for calculating the position of stars, moon, planets etc..

This astronomy observatory is rejuvenated and new devices are found so far. Do you want to know more about this magnificent astronomy center? Just scroll down the article to know about history, architecture, timings and interesting facts about this ancient made astronomy observatory.


Jantar Mantar was constructed by the Maharaj Jai Singh of Jaipur in the year 1724. It was a small astronomical center once and it had small astronomical instruments which were difficult to take correct measurements. So, he built massive astronomy observatory which provides more accurate instruments.

Have you ever thought how ancient people had in-depth knowledge of the position of sun, moon, Amavasya, Poornima etc. Despite no effective instruments were there, people were fully aware of this celestial event and the position of sun and moon with great accuracy. The best example is the Jantar Mantar in India. It compromises of five major observatories built in Varanasi, Mathura, Ujjain, New Delhi , and Jaipur.

The history of this great Jantar Mantar traces the history of our traditional interest of India. It is an astronomical observatory in Delhi and is constructed by King Sawai Jai Singh II. Being located in the Sansad Marg, Jantar Mantar becomes the attractive tourist destination that attracts a lot of visitors across the country. The great king Sawai Jai Singh had a strong passion towards the astronomy related things and which is why he constructed this miraculous astronomical observatory in Delhi. Every day, Jantar Mantar is surrounded by a number of visitors and it contributes a lot to Tourism.

  • Location: located in Parliament Street in Connaught Place.
  • History: Founded by Sawai Jai Singh II.


The art and architecture simply reflect the scientific knowledge of our country. Not just Indians, this great astronomy observatory is being visited by the huge number of foreigners every day.

  • Nearest Shopping Venues: Connaught Place, Janpath, Palika Bazaar, Central Cottage Industries Emporium
  • Nearest Metro Station: Connaught Place
  • Nearest Airport: Indira Gandhi International Airport
  • Nearest Railway Station: New Delhi Railway Station

Jantar Mantar stands as a good proof for the scientific knowledge in India. It is also located in Varanasi, Ujjain, Mathura , etc. this center is built in response to the thirst and craves for the scientific knowledge of Indians. Tourists who visit Jantar Mantar also visit the nearby tourist’s center of Jantar Mantar.

Interesting facts about Jantar Mantar

Although the Jantar Mantar boasts numerous devices, there are seven main devices out there that grab huge attention.

1. Samrat Yantra

it is the most prominent variation that kept inside this great observatory. It contains a triangular gnomon.

2. Jai Prakash Yantra

Next, to the Samrat Yantra, Jai Prakash Yantra is the most beautiful one. The mantra is used for calculation of sun’s position along with several other heavenly bodies. This most beautiful yantra is the favorite device for most kids today. Jai Prakash Yantra was designed by Jain Singh. It is in hemisphere shape that attracts the mass.

3. Digamsa Yantra

Digamsa stands for Azimuth and therefore this yantra is also known by the name of Azimuth Yantra. The Digamsa yantra is less complex than the Rama Yantra and Jai Prakash yantra. It is used to measure the Azimuth of any type of celestial object. The design of this yantra is simple and was built to offer precise azimuthal readings in reference with Rama Yantra. The only and the main purpose to build Digamsa Yantra was to complement Rama Yantra.

4. Ram Yantra

Have you ever heard about the Ram Yantra? It is in a circular structure and boasts a tall pillar in the middle. Ram yantra is popularly used for calculating horizontal and vertical angles.

5. Misra Yantra

Misra Yantra is much popular yantra and is a combined instrument, which is located to the northwest of the Ram yantra. It contains many small instruments and it looks similar to the stylized namaste form that we India usually greet others. The Nita chakra of this Misra yantra indicates Zurich, Greenwich meridians.

6. Dakshinottarabhitti Yantra

Next to the Misra Yantra, Dakshinottarabhitti Yantra is the biggest instruments among others. Acquiring the meridian altitudes were difficult those times and thus it is specially designed with high-quality materials to obtain the meridian altitudes. The appearance of this yantra symbolizes the entry of the sun in cancer constellation.

7. Agra Yantra

Is found to be the amazing instruments in the center. It is located on the west side of the building. Although the instruments seem to be big, we don’t know for what purpose was it used.

8. Yantra Raj

It has a disc made of seven alloys. The size of this disc remains the same for all season. However, it is used to calculate the various planetary position. It is also used to determine the exact timings of solar and lunar eclipses.

Jantar Mantar Delhi Timings

Jantar Mantar is located at the parliament street near Connaught place. Visitors can reach the center between 9 am to 4.30 pm daily. It is the best tourist destination for kids and families. If you would be interested to observe the scientific facts behind these ancient made and outdated machinery, this Jantar Mantra is just for you. You can reach this place even during the summer seasons as this observatory is open for visitors of any country. It doesn’t seek fees for its maintenance.

How To Reach

Jantar Mantar is located in Connaught Place, which is a common landmark in Delhi. There are various means to get to this complex. We have listed a few below. You may choose any one of them according to your convenience:

Via Metro: The nearest metro stations are Rajiv Chowk and Patel Chowk. You can get down at Rajiv Chowk metro station (Gate 6) and hire an auto to reach the complex. It is 2 km away from the station. If you choose to get down at Patel Chowk, the observatory is situated within walking distance.
Via Rail: The observatory is 2.5 km away from New Delhi railway station.
Via Bus: You can hire buses from any part of the city to Palika Kendra bus stand, which is very close to the entry gate of the observatory.

While the aesthetic presence of Jantar Mantar is something that cannot be taken away as long as the basic structure is intact, its utility for the visitor cannot be achieved until all the markings on the instruments are restored correctly and there is a continuous presence of astronomy educators, students and amateur astronomers in the observatory. Make sure to stop by this architectural marvel on your trip to Delhi to make your visit memorable!

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New Delhi Capitol Complex: From Edwin Lutyens & Herbert Baker On To Bimal Patel

Government of India's decision to revamp the Capitol Complex of New Delhi has become a subject of extended debate throughout India these days. Amid uproar by the architectural fraternity about the procedure adopted by the authorities for the selection of architects, the government moved ahead and selected HCP Design, Planning And Management Pvt Ltd, Ahmedabad headed by Bimal Patel for the project. The selected architects though have a proven record of many success stories yet they have an onerous task ahead due to the historical importance and heritage status of the complex.

New Delhi Capitol Complex: From Edwin Lutyens & Herbert Baker On To Bimal Patel. Photo collage: Sarbjit Bahga.

Given the above scenario, it is desirable to through some light on the background of the thought process of British architects and planners who evolved an architecture which they thought was appropriate for The New Delhi Capital at that time. The newly appointed architects will have to keep in mind the design approach of their predecessors as the whole of India will be judging the new design in continuity with the Britishers' school of thought. The Capitol Complex of New Delhi comprising the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Secretariat Building comprising North and South Blocks, Parliament House and Central Vista or Rajpath leading up to India Gate was built in the early 1900s, that is, in the last about five decades of British rule in India.

Panoramic view of Capitol Complex. Photo: A.Savin.

North Block. Photo: Bloomberg Quint.

During this period conscious efforts were made by British architects to take into account the Indian conditions while building. By so doing, they were attempting to send signals through the medium of architecture that, despite being an imperial people, they were organically and inextricably part of the Indian scene. Conscious efforts to express such a synthesis resulted in weird hybrid styles of architecture. A British architect, Sir William Emerson, thought that buildings in India should show distinctively British character and at the same time should adopt the details and essence of native architecture.

The Capitol Complex at New Delhi designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker is an example of a revived imperial architecture breathing an air of Indianness. In their endeavour to make architecture more rational and appropriate to its locale, the British architects had to compromise with elements from the Buddhist, Hindu and Mughal building vocabularies.

North Block. Photo: Laurie Jones.

South Block. Photo: Pinterest

About the style of architecture to be adopted for New Delhi, Lord Charles Hardinge, the then Viceroy of India, felt that pure Eastern and pure Western architecture would be quite out of place. He emphasized the need to blend both styles. He was confident of the popularity of the new imperial architecture of Delhi. As he put it: "I have no hesitation in saying that I have absolutely the whole of India at my back in wishing that the new city should be built in accordance with Indian sentiments. I do not by this mean that the town should be built of highly ornate or Hindu architecture, but my idea is that it should be a fine broad style with a minimum of decoration, but that decoration should be of the purest and most ancient Hindu ornament. Opinion in this country is quite unanimous on the subject and after all who are we building for - the Indian or the British public?&rdquo 1

South Block. Photo: Atul Bais.

Herbert Baker also believed that Indian sentiments could be satisfied by grafting onto classical British architecture certain decorations expressing the myths, symbols and history of the Indian people. Thus spacious colonnades, open verandahs, overhanging eaves or cornices, narrow and high window openings, chhajjas or wide, projecting shade-giving stone cornices, jaalis or pierced stone lattice screens to admit air and not glare and chhatris or free-standing pavilions breaking the long horizontal lines of the flat roof were incorporated into his scheme for two secretariat blocks.

North Block. Photo: Akshay Seth.

Herbert Baker, in a letter to The Times of October 3, 1912, explaining his views about the style of architecture to be followed for New Delhi, wrote: "The new capital must be the sculptural monument of the good government and unity which India, for the first time in its history, has enjoyed under British rule. British rule in India is not a mere veneer of government and culture. It is a new civilization in growth, a blend of the best elements of East and West. It is to this great fact that the architecture of Delhi should bear testimony." 2

North Block. Photo: Appaiah.

Edwin Lutyens, being a staunch believer in the principles of classicism, had always advocated Western designs and was strongly opposed to hybrid forms of Indian and European architecture. He believed that European classicism embodied all that was civilized, rational and humanist. His scathing criticism of Indian architecture was: "I do not believe there is any real Indian architecture or any great tradition. There are just spurts by various mushroom dynasties with as much intellect as there is in any other art nouveau&hellip India has never had any real architecture, and if you may not graft the West out here, she never will have any." 3

Lutyens further added: "Architecture, more than any other art, represents the intellectual progress of those that are in authority. In India, they have never had the initial advantage of those intellectual giants the Greeks, who handed the torch to the Romans, they to the great Italians and on to the Frenchmen and to Wren, who made it sane for England&hellipI should have liked to have handed on that torch and made it sane for India, and Indian in its character." 4

Rashtrapati Bhavan. Photo: Ronakshah.

Lutyens' determined efforts, however, ultimately resulted in a complex of exceptional scale and unique picturesqueness, reflecting baroque classicism. His hard principles of Western classicism were to some extent diluted, perhaps due to the sweeping persuasion of Lord Hardinge who declared to Lutyens that "it would be a grave political blunder, and in my opinion, an absurdity, to place a purely western town amidst eastern surroundings." 5

View of Rashtrapati Bhavan from the Mughal Gardens. Photo: Eric Feferberg.

This is evident from Lutyens's design for the Viceroy's Palace (now Rashtrapati Bhavan) in which some elements of traditional Indian architecture are incorporated. The arches, the projecting cornices and the decorative chhatris are reminiscent of both Hindu and Mughal architecture. While the large central dome resembles a Buddhist stupa, the railings remind you of those found at the stupa in Sanchi. Even the adjoining garden west of the palace has been designed on the pattern of the Mughal gardens.

Mughal Garden on the west of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Photo: Mohsin Javed.

Mughal Garden on the west of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Photo: India1277.

Despite their endeavour for indigenization of the European style of architecture by readjusting proportions, adapting layouts, being more responsive to the climate of the country and by the vivid use of shade and shadow with the help of projecting eaves, verandahs, porticos blocked by rattan screens and windows with shutters, the emphasis was on the form, external expression, vistas, axes and symmetry. As such, although this European style of architecture undoubtedly possesses artistic taste akin to Indianness, it is nonetheless soulless.

Parliament House. Photo: Firstpost.

Parliament House. Photo: A.Savin.

Given the above discourse, the whole of India will be eagerly watching the design approach of architect Bimal Patel and how he will instil Indian soul in the revamped Capitol Complex while maintaining harmony and architectural continuity with the existing one or in utter contrast with it.

  1. Quoted in Suhash Chakravarty, &ldquoArchitecture and Politics in the Construction of New Delhi,&rdquo Architecture+Design, January-February, 1986, p.85, from Hardinge to Crewe, August 29, 1912, Hardinge Papers.
  2. Ibid, p.91, from The Times, October 3, 1912.
  3. Quoted in Norma Evenson, The Indian Metropolis: A View Toward the West, p.105.
  4. Ibid, (Hussey), p.280, and (Evenson), p.105.
  5. Ibid, (Evenson), p.105.

South Block. Photo: David Castor.

Jaipur Column at Rashtrapati Bhavan. Photo: Christian Haugen.

Mughal Garden on the west of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Photo: Outlook India.

View of Central Vista or Rajpath from Rashtrapati Bhavan. Photo: Rashid Jorvee.

Aerial View of Capitol Complex. Photo: Google Earth.

Decline of the Jantar Mantar

When Jai Singh died in 1743, his kingdom began to enter a period of decline, as his sons fought each other for the throne. At the same time, the Mughal Empire was weakening and was in fact breaking up. As a result, northern India became vulnerable and various powers seized the opportunity to attack the region.

Delhi was especially targeted, due to the riches it contained. For instance, the city was sacked by the Iranian ruler, Nader Shah, when he invaded northern India in 1739. In 1748, after the death of Muhammad Shah, the Marathas overran almost all of northern India. The Jantar Mantar at Delhi fell victim to these invaders.

Jantar Mantar astronomy instrument, New Delhi, India. ( Akhilesh Sharma / Adobe Stock)

The natural environment is also responsible for causing much damage to the Jantar Mantar. Due to their outdoor situation in a tropical area, maintenance and restorations had to be frequently carried out on the Jantar Mantar.

As a result of the political turmoil in the region, however, the successors of Jai Singh had more pressing matters to attend to. As a consequence, maintenance of the observatories was neglected and they were simply left to deteriorate.

During the 19th century, even the Jantar Mantar at Jaipur was temporarily abandoned. Fortunately, reconstructions of the instruments were made for this Jantar Mantar, and in the subsequent decades, efforts were made to maintain the site.

Taken from the observation platform at the top of the Jantar Mantar in Jaipur, India. (Knowledge Seeker / Public Domain )

Today, this Jantar Mantar functions as a tourist attraction, and is used also as a public park and outdoor museum. Nevertheless, the deterioration of the instruments remains a problem even today. Weathering, the wear and tear of materials, as well as vandalism pose a threat to the site.

In 2010, it was reported that the biggest issue is the loss of the fine, calibrated markings on the instruments, which are eroding. These astronomical instruments demonstrate the ingenuity of Jai Singh and his achievements in the field of astronomy. Therefore, their deterioration needs to be addressed as soon as possible, so as to preserve these remarkable instruments for future generations.

Top image: Jantar Mantar in India. Source: Aliaksei / Adobe Stock.

Watch the video: दलल म सथत Jaipur column क नम Jaipur column कय पड? #shorts #thecronopoint #hindi (July 2022).


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