Tempest SwStr - History

Tempest SwStr - History

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( SwStr.: t. 161; a. 2 30-par. P.r., 2 24-par. how., 2

Tempest—a wooden-hulled, sidewheel steamer built in 1862 at Louisville, Ky.—was acquired by the Navy at Cincinnati, Ohio, on 30 December 1864 from Joseph Brown; was converted there to a gunboat by Mr. Brown; and was commissioned on 26 April, Acting Volunteer Lt. Comdr. William G. Saltonstall in command.

Tempest operated with the naval forces in western waters throughout her brief naval career. She served as flagship for Acting Rear Admiral S. P. Lee, while he directed efforts on the Mississippi and its tributaries to prevent the escape of the former President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. She continued in this role while he oversaw the demobilization of the Mississippi Squadron. Rear Admiral Lee hauled down his flag from her on 14 August. The ship was decommissioned at Mound City, Ill., on 30 November 1865, the day after she was sold at public auction there to Robert Cams. Tempest was redocumented on 11 December 1865 and remained in merchant service until 1870

Rimuru Tempest

The USS Michigan

The USS Michigan was commissioned in 1843 and was the U.S. Navy’s first iron hulled warship. It was a paddle steamer though it still had full sails. It was built for deployment in the Great Lakes in response to the construction of two Canadian (British) steamers that were built at the time. The ship served during the Civil War and later conflicts including the action taken against mining strikes, detainment of Fenian reinforcements in battle of Fort Erie, and riot control in Buffalo after the assassination of President McKinley. It served the U.S. Navy into the twentieth century when it was finally decommissioned into the care of the Pennsylvania Naval Militia under the name USS Wolverine. During this time its duties were limited to training cruises and celebrations.

The USS Michigan was the first Iron hulled man of war in the US Navy. Though many wooden ships had already been “iron-clad” by essentially strapping iron to a wooden ship, The USS Michigan‘s hull was made entirely of iron. Though it was set up much like the old wooden sea fairing ships, its iron hull was lighter and shaped differently than wooden ships which had a more circular cross-section. The strength of iron allowed the hull to be made about a third of the weight of a typical wooden ship. Iron is also more rigid than wood and a hull made of iron has very different properties than one made of wood. Wood has the ability to compress and bend so creating large ships for wood was hard. Wooden ships tended to bend under the different forces of waves, but an iron hull is much more rigid. Iron ships takes waves without bending. As a result the hull of the Michigan took on a more square shaped cross-section that was possible to use in wooden ships. The shape and weight of the hull made the USS Michigan a “shallow-draft” ship, meaning it sat about half as deep in the water as wooden ship. The shallow-draft design improved several aspects of the ship. For one it could maneuver into shallow harbors and rivers easily. This is important since the Michigan was meant to be sailed on the Great Lakes and its connecting rivers. Another important aspect of this design was the stability of the ship. The flat sides create considerably less roll when in choppy waters than a rounded hull would. The stability of the ship makes firing guns considerably easier and more accurate as the crew doesn’t have to account for a much roll. The shallow draft also means that there was a lot less water drag. Less drag meant that the Michigan was fast. It was rated at 12 knots which was fast for any ship at the time, but the Michigan recorded several trips that averaged 13 knots at only one-half to two-thirds steam.

Tensions with England had died down by the time the Michigan was commissioned, and she never saw battle with the ships she was built to protect the lakes against. However, it wasn’t long before the Civil War came around and the ship’s crew had to fight off Confederates who attempted to take the ship from Union hands. The details of the Michigan’s Civil War services are not expounded upon here. However, after the war the Michigan continued to serve a long military career.

One of the first actions the Michigan took after the war involved mining strikes in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. After the Civil War the Michigan was posted in Detroit in order to best be able to defend all the Great Lakes. Rumors were heard that old Confederate rebels were looking for retribution on some northern cities and the Michigan started heading up the lakes on patrol for these rebels. The Michigan didn’t find any Confederates all the way up Lake Huron and moved into Lake Superior. Upon reaching the mining town Marquette, the Michigan found the entire town in upheaval. Due to inflation after the war and the absence of the war-time production, the mining towns in the UP were laying off workers and cutting wages. The response was disastrous in Marquette. The iron mines were staffed mostly with immigrants while the rest of the country had been at war, and workers had moved rapidly into violent protest over the change in working conditions. The members of the crew sided quickly with the townspeople who ran the mines due to the violence displayed by the protesters as well as the fact that the strikers were still getting a much higher pay than the sailors were. The Michigan quickly made a show of force by disembarking its artillery onto a rail-car and arriving with an armed crew at the strikers’ camp. Surprised by this unexpected military presence the strike quickly disbanded. The Michigan found a similar situation in Houghton and Hancock in the copper mines. Though the Michigan’s crew couldn’t march into the strikers’ camp with howitzers like they had in Marquette due to the mountainous valley that the small mining was built on, the presence of the Michigan eventually helped calm the strike. The Michigan then visited Marquette again to find that the strike there had resumed, this time with more organization. The Michigan’s crew once again found itself defending the town. This time army reinforcements were called up and after a week or so the strikers had reached an agreement with the mining companies.

These strikes weren’t the only problem caused by the influx of immigrants during the Civil War though. After the war, tensions with England grew once again. Great Britain was sympathetic to the Confederates because the southern states had been long providers of cotton to their textile mills. In order to keep this flow of cotton England decided to support the Confederates. After the war ended the U.S. demanded some compensation from Britain for their interference though their influence was fairly minimal. Nonetheless, during these times of tension a faction of Irish revolutionists looking to throw off their British handlers grew and the group spilled into the America. This Irish-American faction was called the Fenian movement. Though not taken seriously at first, they managed to organize a three-pronged invasion of Canada. Tensions with Britain began to cool and the US wanted nothing to do with this invasion and took measures to try and keep contraband weaponry out of Fenian hands. Nonetheless, the Fenians managed to arm themselves and began their movement. The Michigan was dispatched to keep the Fenians from crossing into Canada. On May 31, 1866 all boat traffic in Buffalo harbor was suspended. Commander of the Michigan at the time, Andrew Bryson, described the situation:

There is considerable excitement in the City as to what their [Fenians] immediate object is, and fears are entertained that they may seize the steamer m and attempt to make a landing in Canada. I am all ready to cooperate with the shore authorities in preventing such a movement, and with this end in view, I have considered it prudent and necessary to keep sufficient quantity of steam to enable me to move at any moment. [1]

The attempt to prevent the invasion was not what could be called a success. Though many troops and munitions were captured by the Michigan and her patrol, much of the Fenian army still managed to cross due in part to delays caused by a Fenian sympathizer on board the Michigan. With the Fenian army already in Canada, the Michigan’s crew was put into action indirectly during the battle of Fort Erie that ensued. The ship was used to deny reinforcements of the Fenian movement to the battle and arrested men involved in the movement. The other prongs of the invasion of Canada faltered and the Fenian movement collapsed. Though it was unlikely that the Fenians could have succeeded in any real capacity to take Canada, the actions of the Michigan kept the situation from escalating into full bloody war.

Though it had a long career of keeping the peace on the Great Lakes, the USS Michigan never fired a shot of war. The ship had been the long-lived flagship for the US Navy in the Great Lakes, but technology had surpassed her and the old ship was left with the jobs of surveying rivers and helping move grounded ships. The ship became technologically obsolete and in 1905 the USS Michigan was renamed the USS Wolverine so that the name Michigan could be used for a new battleship. The Wolverine was turned over to the care of the Pennsylvania Naval Militia. Until this time, the Michigan was very well kept. In fact the Michigan was a testament to the longevity of an iron hulled ship. When the Michigan’s hull was inspected in 1905, the hull was found to be “free of corrosion and other damage.”[4] However, left to the care of the militia, the Michigan began to degrade much quicker. Even so, the inspector of the ship in 1910 still gave a good report of the ship:

The underwater body was found to be in very good condition, with the exception of the plates under the boilers and under the fore hold. Under the fore hold the plates were corroded through in two places under the boilers the plates were generally weakened and several rivets had been knocked out while chipping the inner skin. All this corrosion was internal. All holes mentioned… were plugged with rivets and a coat of cement from two to three inches in thickness was put on the ship’s bottom under the boilers. [2]

The Wolverine stood up against the lakes impressively over its lifetime. As mentioned by the inspector, all the corrosion in the hull was internal meaning that the lakes didn’t do the damage. Rather, over fifty years of service and wet floors caused any holes to be found. The longevity of the Wolverine proved iron to be a cheaper and better investment than wooden boats, and at the turn of the century, many more iron or steel boats were made for commercial use.

For the most part the Wolverine was used as a training and recruitment ship. Though in 1901 she was dispatched to Buffalo after the assassination of President McKinley as a means of riot control. During this voyage the Wolverine was recorded to have reached its record speed during this time of 14 knots.[3] Nonetheless, the ship continued to be used primarily as a training vessel. As a result the ship continued to have new equipment installed in order for proper training to take place. In 1912 the ship was decommissioned from the US Navy and loaned to the Pennsylvania Naval Militia. During her time of service there she mostly ran training exercises.

Probably the highlight of the ship’s career as the Wolverine involved the USS Niagara. The USS Niagara was originally part of Oliver Perry’s fleet in the war of 1812. The hull of the Niagara was found at the bottom of Misery Bay across from the city of Erie. Though it could not be concluded that this was the original Niagara and no original plans of the Niagara were ever found, the hull was nonetheless raised and rebuilt to researched specifications of the original ship. In 1913, the Wolverine towed the reconstructed, 480 ton USS Niagara from port to port during the centennial celebration of the Battle of Lake Erie in which Oliver Perry’s fleet defeated that of the British.

The bow of the Wolverine on display

In 1923 a connecting rod broke in the port engine and ended the USS Wolverine’s active career. After years of political ownership bouncing and neglect, the ship was eventually scraped after fundraising efforts failed to preserve the ship. The historical significance of the ship was lost in the midst of the Great Depression and subsequent World War. Her bow was donated and now remains as a memorial in Wolverine Park on Lake Erie. It’s a shame that the ship that lasted over one hundred years and through several wars would find itself scrapped, yet we can still remember its testament to the change in naval technology and honor the peace it helped keep and lives it saved for so long.

Declassified NSA Document Reveals the Secret History of TEMPEST

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It was 1943, and an engineer with Bell Telephone was working on one of the U.S. government's most sensitive and important pieces of wartime machinery, a Bell Telephone model 131-B2. It was a top secret encrypted teletype terminal used by the Army and Navy to transmit wartime communications that could defy German and Japanese cryptanalysis.

This teletype-encryption machine, known as the Sigaba m134c, was used alongside the Bell Telephone machine found to be leaking signals. The Bell 131-B2 used special one-time tapes to create unbreakable codes.
Photo: Mark PellegriniThen he noticed something odd.

Far across the lab, a freestanding oscilloscope had developed a habit of spiking every time the teletype encrypted a letter. Upon closer inspection, the spikes could actually be translated into the plain message the machine was processing. Though he likely didn't know it at the time, the engineer had just discovered that all information processing machines send their secrets into the electromagnetic ether.

Call it a TEMPEST in a teletype.

This story of how the United States first learned about the fundamental security vulnerability called "compromising emanations" is revealed for the first time in a newly-declassified 1972 paper TEMPEST: A Signal Problem (.pdf), from the National Security Agency's secret in-house journal Cryptologic Spectrum.

"There has always been speculation about TEMPEST coming out of the Cold War period," says Joel McNamara, author of Secrets of Computer Espionage: Tactics and Countermeasures, who maintained for years the best compilation of public information on TEMPEST. "But the 1943 Bell Labs discovery is roughly ten years earlier than I would have expected."

The unnamed Bell Telephone technician was the Alexander Graham Bell of a new, secret science, in which electronic eavesdroppers – as far away as hundreds of feet from their target tune into radio waves leaking from electronic equipment to steal secrets.

Building on the breakthrough, the U.S. developed and refined the science in an attempt to spy on the Soviets during the Cold War. And it issued strict standards for shielding sensitive buildings and equipment. Those rules are now known to government agencies and defense contractors as TEMPEST, and they apply to everything from computer monitors to encrypted cell phones that handle classified information.

Until now, little has been known about when and how the U.S.
government began trying to protect itself from this threat, and the NSA
paper tells the story well.

Bell Telephone faced a dilemma. They had sold the equipment to the military with the assurance that it was secure, but it wasn't. The only thing they could do was to tell the [U.S. Army] Signal
Corps about it, which they did. There they met the charter members of a club of skeptics who could not believe that these tiny pips could really be exploited under practical field conditions. They are alleged to have said something like: "Don't you realize there's a war on? We can't bring our cryptographic operations to a screeching halt based on a dubious and esoteric laboratory phenomenon. If this is really dangerous, prove it."

So the Bell engineers were place in a building on Varick Street in
New York. Across the street and 80 feet away was Signal Corps Varick
Street cryptocenter. The engineers recorded signals for about an hour.
Three or four hours later, they produced about 75% of the plain text that was being processed–a fast performance, by the way, that has been rarely equaled.

Oddly, the lessons were forgotten at the close of the World War II
– even as the Soviets seemed to have learned to insulate their machines. In 1951, the CIA told the nascent NSA that they had been playing with the Bell teletype machines and found they could read plain text from a quarter mile down the signal line.

In 1962, the Japanese, then our allies, attempted just that by aiming antenna on top of a hospital at a U.S. crypto center, according to the article. And the Russians did the same – planting not just the famous 40 microphones in the U.S.'s Moscow embassy, but also seeding mesh antenna in the concrete ceiling, whose only purpose could have been stealing leaked energy pulses.

The principal of the TEMPEST attack is deceptively simple. Any machine that processes information – be it a photocopier, an electric typewriter or a laptop – has parts inside that emit electromagnetic and acoustic energy that radiates out, as if they were tiny radio stations. The waves can even be picked up and amplified by nearby power lines, telephone cables and even water pipes, carrying them even further. A sophisticated attacker can capture the right frequency, analyze the data for patterns and recover the raw information the devices were processing or even the private encryption keys inside the machine.

Decades ago the FCC has set standards prohibiting electrical devices from interfering with other ones, concerned merely about noise. These days we know that computer monitors, audio cables and other information machines like credit card machines in restaurants actually emit sensitive information.

Outside of the government, almost nothing was known about how such eavesdropping worked until 1985, when a computer researcher named Wim van Eck published a paper explaining how cheap equipment could be used to pick up and redisplay information from a computer monitor. The first mentions of TEMPEST began in the mid 60s, and Gene Hackman introduced the Faraday cage to the public in the 1970s in the classic eavesdropping movie The Conversation.*

In addition to explaining how the U.S. discovered compromising emanations, the declassified NSA document provides a surprising historical snapshot of Cold War espionage techniques, says McNamara.

"It is . interesting that CIA rediscovered the vulnerability in
1951 and work on countermeasures soon followed," he says. "One can assume that the U.S. Intelligence Community also begin using the electronic surveillance technique against foreign powers during this same time frame. From the 1953 and 1954 dates mentioned in the document, it seems the Russians were aware of the vulnerability by then, and were taking measures to secure their communications equipment.

Pennsylvania University science professor Matt Blaze also expressed some amazement at the Bell researchers discovering as early as 1943
that digital equipment leaked information.

"The earliest reference to emissions attacks I'm aware of . is Peter Wright's recollections, in his book Spycatcher, of following around spies in 1950's London by tracking the local oscillators of their radio receivers," says Blaze. "But that's analog, not digital."

The NSA did not declassify the entire paper however, leaving the description of two separate, but apparently related, types of attacks enticingly redacted.

One attack is called "Flooding" and the other "Seismic."

The idea of being able to steal plain text of an encrypted message using earthquake sensors? Stinkin' cool.

THREAT LEVEL anxiously awaits the back story on that attack to be told.

*Professor Matt Blaze questions whether Hackman was in a Faraday cage in The Conversation, since Hackman was able to transmit out. He was definitely in some sort of metal cage, but I may have jumped to conclusions about its Faraday-ness.

Kyle Harrison‘s walk rate is the fourth-highest among all Giants pitchers in the system, which is really odd as he is known more for his pitchability and control coming out of college. The sample size is still small but if it persists throughout the season, I would bump his command grade down. From what I saw so far, his mechanics, fastball-slider combo, arm-slot, and present control issues really reminded me of a right-handed version of former Giants top prospect Kyle Crick.

One of the hottest hitters in the farm system is Bryce Johnson, with him ranking fifth in wRC+ in the month of May. His line drive rate is the third-highest among qualified Giants hitters. His .460 BABIP seems unsustainable but when looking at the ratio between his batting average and BABIP, his ratio this year of 1.35:1 is actually in line with his normal ratio of 1.32:1 so there’s an indication that this potential breakout is for real.

Looking at the difference between ERA and FIP, Nick Morreale‘s ERA-FIP difference is 1.79, which would be sixth among all Giants pitchers. However, what’s more encouraging about his performance is that it is fueled with a high SwStr%. I’ve watched his best start of the season and he’s improved a lot with his fastball control.

The owner of the lowest SwStr% in the first month of the season belongs to Ismael Munguia. The contact-heavy Nicaraguan has upped his power a bit, shifting towards a line-to-line approach from a more pull-center approach when comparing his spray charts in the last two years. He’s also added a bit of lift to his swing, with a lower line drive rate but a higher flyball rate as proof.

Stay tuned to Around the Foghorn for the latest news and updates on the SF Giants farm system from Wrenzie Regodon and Marc Delucchi.


Tempest Strike as it appears in Tales of Eternia.

Original Titles

  • Tales of Destiny (PSX) - Stahn Aileron (Spin Slash)
  • Tales of Destiny (PS2) + Director's Cut - Stahn Aileron
  • Tales of Phantasia: Narikiri Dungeon X - Warrior costume
  • Tales of Eternia - Reid Hershel (Tempest Strike)
  • Tales of Symphonia - Lloyd Irving (Tempest)
  • Tales of the Abyss - Guy Cecil (Tempest), Reid Hershel (Tempest Strike)
  • Tales of Eternia Online - Warrior class, Swordsman class
  • Tales of the Tempest - Caius Qualls
  • Tales of Innocence - Ruca Milda, Spada Belforma
  • Tales of Innocence R - Ruca Milda
  • Tales of Symphonia: Dawn of the New World - Lloyd Irving (Tempest)
  • Tales of Hearts - Kunzite
  • Tales of Hearts R - Kunzite (Tempest Strike)
  • Tales of Graces - Asbel Lhant (Tempest Strike)
  • Tales of Xillia 2 - Stahn (Tempest Strike)

Tempest as it appears in Tales of the Abyss.

Cross-Over Titles

  • Tales of the World: Narikiri Dungeon 2 - Stahn Aileron, Reid Hershel
  • Tales of the World: Narikiri Dungeon 3 - Stahn Aileron, Reid Hershel, Lloyd Irving
  • Tales of the World: Radiant Mythology - Warrior class, Swordsman class, Stahn Aileron, Reid Hershel, Lloyd Irving (Tempest Strike)
  • Tales of the World: Radiant Mythology 2 - Warrior class, Swordsman class, Dual Swordman class, Stahn Aileron, Reid Hershel, Lloyd Irving, Guy Cecil, Caius Qualls, Ruca Milda, Spada Belforma
  • Tales of VS. - Stahn Aileron, Lloyd Irving, Caius Qualls, Ruca Milda
  • Tales of the World: Radiant Mythology 3 - Warrior class, Swordsman class, Dual Swordman class, Stahn Aileron, Reid Hershel, Lloyd Irving, Guy Cecil, Caius Qualls, Ruca Milda, Spada Belforma
  • Tales of the Heroes: Twin Brave - Spada Belforma
  • Tales of Link - Stahn Aileron (Tempest Strike), Guy (Tempest), Caius (Tempest Strike / Tempest)
  • Tales of Asteria - Stahn Aileron
  • Tales of the Rays - Lloyd Irving, Guy Cecil (Tempest Strike), Caius Qualls, Ruca Milda



Tempest Shadow is portrayed in the film and subsequent material as cold, merciless, and spiteful as a result of losing her horn. She cares little for the idea of friendship, feeling it had "betrayed" her long ago, and that it is a childish concept which doesn't work in the world she knows.

She is obsessed with having her horn restored and isn't hesitant to use, threaten, or punish others to accomplish this. She bosses around underlings like Grubber, uses brute force on the citizens of Klugetown, takes Capper as her prisoner, and destroys Captain Celaeno's airship for insubordination.

Toward the end of the film, however, being betrayed by the Storm King and saved by Twilight Sparkle causes Tempest to have such a drastic change of heart that she sacrifices herself to defeat the Storm King once and for all. Though she still laments her broken horn, Tempest accepts Twilight's friendship and joins her new friends in celebrating. In other follow-up material such as The Great Princess Caper, she is also kinder toward Grubber.

In Tempest's Tale, she is shown to feel out of place in Ponyville (due to how "sunny" it is there), and helps others during her travels in order to atone for her past misdeeds. She is quite blunt and cynical, openly telling Princess Cadance to her face that she believes she represents everything that is wrong with Equestria. She also shows resentment and bitterness toward Glitter Drops for the events of their youth, becoming outraged when Glitter Drops saves her from an ursa minor. After Glitter Drops admits how guilty she feels about what happened and shows her skills while tracking the Ursa Major, Tempest realizes she misjudged her old friend and reconciles with her, even allowing her to call Tempest by her childhood nickname "Fizzy".

Due to the childhood incident which cost her her horn, Tempest is deeply afraid of ursa minors, freezing in fear when she encounters one.

Tempest relishes any opportunities to fight against tough opponents, forming a kinship with Rockhoof over their mutual love of battle.

The Tempest

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The Tempest, drama in five acts by William Shakespeare, first written and performed about 1611 and published in the First Folio of 1623 from an edited transcript, by Ralph Crane (scrivener of the King’s Men), of the author’s papers after they had been annotated for production.

The play opens with a storm raised by Prospero, who years earlier, as the rightful duke of Milan, had been set adrift in a boat with his three-year-old daughter, Miranda, by his usurping brother, Antonio. Prospero, more interested in his books and his magic than in the pragmatics of ruling Milan, had left himself vulnerable to this overthrow. Arriving at an island, Prospero proceeded to make good use of his magic by freeing the sprite Ariel from the torment of imprisonment to which Ariel had been subjected for refusing to carry out the wicked behests of the sorceress Sycorax. Prospero and Miranda found no living person on the island other than Sycorax’s son Caliban. They took Caliban into their little family and lived in harmony until Caliban attempted to rape Miranda. Prospero then confined Caliban to a rock and to the status of slave, requiring him to attend to their needs by performing such tasks as gathering firewood. As the play begins, Prospero raises the tempest in order to cast onto the shores of his island a party of Neapolitans returning to Naples from a wedding in Tunis: King Alonso of Naples, his son Ferdinand, his brother Sebastian, and Prospero’s brother, Antonio.

With the arrival of the outsiders, the process of testing and eventual reconciliation begins. The party is brought to shore by Ariel, but Ferdinand is separated from the others and is believed drowned. Ariel helps foil plots against Prospero by Caliban and against Alonso by Antonio. Ariel then appears to Alonso and Antonio as a harpy and reproaches them for their treatment of Prospero. Alonso, believing Ferdinand dead, is certain that his death was punishment for Alonso’s crime and has a change of heart. Prospero, convinced that Antonio and company are repentant (or at least chastened), reconciles all and prepares to return to Milan to reclaim his throne.

Young Ferdinand meantime has encountered Miranda, and the two have fallen instantly in love. Their courtship is watched carefully by Prospero, who, though insistent that they proceed carefully and preserve their virginity until they are actually married, welcomes this love relationship as a way of making Miranda happy and at the same time of reconciling Milan and Naples their marriage will unite the two contending kingdoms.

For a discussion of this play within the context of Shakespeare’s entire corpus, see William Shakespeare: Shakespeare’s plays and poems.

Share All sharing options for: Back-to-Back: When Starters Face the Same Team Twice in a Row

Chris Sale had to follow up his complete game one-hitter against the Angels in May by facing the Angels again. James Guillory-US PRESSWIRE

Recently I investigated how pitchers change the types of pitches that they are throwing as they face hitters multiple times within the same game. I also noted how their level of success drops on each occasion through the order. One would deduce that this relative advantage is gained by the hitter at least partly to do with their becoming more accustomed to a pitcher, his rhythm, velocity, movement and sequencing.

To extend this idea a little further, I wondered what happened when an offense got to face the same starter twice within a week. Would hitters maintain this learned advantage? Would starters resort to a different game plan when forced to face the same team again right away?

For the study, I decided to look at all occasions in the last three seasons where a starting pitcher faced the same opponent in consecutive starts. The results are shown below:

Time Faced wOBA Against HR% K% uBB% SwStr%
1 .328 2.65% 18.82% 7.45% 7.84%
2 .328 2.30% 17.48% 7.37% 7.77%

Starters Facing Same Team Twice in a Row, 2010

Time Faced wOBA Against HR% K% uBB% SwStr%
1 .323 2.70% 17.57% 7.25% 7.73%
2 .320 2.96% 16.42% 6.13% 7.91%

Starters Facing Same Team Twice in a Row, 2011

Time Faced wOBA Against HR% K% uBB% SwStr%
1 .310 2.79% 18.73% 6.97% 7.86%
2 .318 2.72% 18.70% 7.62% 8.08%

Starters Facing Same Team Twice in a Row, 2012

Overall there does not look to be any sufficient evidence that the opposing offense gains an advantage in these situations. The only consistent trend is that K% drops in the second meeting compared to the first, although there is not a corresponding decline in SwStr%.

A related question would then be: are pitchers making adjustments to their game plan when facing the team the second time? Are they throwing different types of pitches at different times in the game?

At the most basic level, there is some evidence that pitchers do in fact throw less fastballs the second time around.

Year Fastball% Delta
2010 -1.0%
2011 -0.5%
2012 -1.0%

Starters Facing Same Team Twice in a Row, Fastball Usage Delta 2nd-1st Start

These differences are quite small of course, on the order of one pitch per start. In breaking down each start by times through the order, the slightly lower fastball percentages are spread quite equally throughout the start, so there is no evidence of a more concerted effort to throw less fastballs the first time through the order in the second start, for example.

Of course just looking at pitch type frequencies does not identify potential changes in pitch sequencing, which I suspect may be more likely to yield differences when starting pitchers find themselves in these situations.

There is nothing earth shattering learned here, but as far as applying these results, at least if you play fantasy baseball, you can relax when one of your starters faces the same team in back-to-back starts, as we know now on average they will fare just about as well, save perhaps a slight hit on the strikeout rate.

Credit and thanks to Baseball Heat Maps for PITCHf/x data upon which this analysis was based.


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