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Neokautah YTB-284 - History

Neokautah YTB-284 - History


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Neokautah
(YTB-284: dp. 415; 1. 110'; b. 27'; dr. 11'4"; s. 12 k.)

Neokautah (YTB-284) was laid down 10 September 1943 at Westergard Boatworks, Biloxi, Miss., launched 22 July 1944; and placed in service 24 November 1944.

Following the Gulf Coast westward Neokautah reported for duty to the Commandant, 8th Naval District, New Orleans La. Thus began 15 years service in this naval district first along the Mississippi River and after 1950 at the deactivation base, Orange, Texas. Deaetivated in 1959 for disposal, YTB-284 was purchased by the Mobile Towing & Wrecking Co. in May 1960.


Participants in the Battle of the Thames

Makataimeshekiakiak, Black Hawk, 1767-1838: A Sauk war leader and experienced warrior, Blackhawk was a veteran of the Battles of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson. Although he left the war for a period of time, he rejoined the British, and scholars feel that he was probably at the Battle of the Thames. Following the war, Black Hawk continued to oppose American encroachment on native lands that culminated in "The Black Hawk War" in 1832.

Neokautah, Four Legs: A Winnebago chief who fought with Tecumseh at Fort Meigs and participated in the attack on Fort Sandusky. Four Legs was a representative of the Winnebago at the peace conference in Mackinaw, Michigan in 1815.

Nuscotomeg, Mad Sturgeon: A Potowatami chief, Mad Sturgeon led an attack on Fort Dearborn in August 1812.

Oshawana: Ojibwa chief and Tecumseh's lead warrior and deputy.

Henry Procter 1763-1822: Major general in command of the British forces.

Erected by Tecumseh Parkway.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial Era &bull Native Americans &bull War of 1812. A significant historical year for this entry is 1832.

N, 81° 55.842′ W. Marker is near Thamesville, Ontario, in Chatham-Kent Division. Marker can be reached from Longwoods Road (Provincial Highway 2) 4.2 kilometers east of Victoria Road (Provincial Highway 21), on the right when traveling east. The historical marker is located in a Historical Park, that commemorates the Battle of the Thames, along the east side of a park roadway with a long series of Tecumseh Parkway markers. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 14376 Longwoods Road, Thamesville, Ontario N0P 2K0, Canada. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. A different marker also named Participants in the Battle of the Thames (a few steps from this marker) a different marker also named Participants in the Battle of the Thames (a few steps from this marker) Why Choose This Site? (within shouting distance of this marker) a different marker also named Participants in the Battle of the Thames (within shouting distance of this marker) a different marker also named Participants in the Battle of the Thames (within shouting distance of this marker) Prelude to Battle (within shouting distance of this marker) a different marker also named Participants in the Battle of the Thames (within shouting distance of this marker) The Bugles Sound (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Thamesville.


Neokautah YTB-284 - History

THE WINNEBAGO TRIBE ORIGIN

Closely connected with the events surrounding the earliest settlement of western Wisconsin is the history of the Winnebago and Menominee tribes, who roamed all this section of the country as early as 1632. Archeologists have concluded that the Winnebago was the first tribe of Indians who came to Wisconsin, as they made their first home on Doty island, and were there visited by Nicolet, the first white man to come to Wisconsin, and this war-loving tribe of savages were so prominent in pioneer days they became the most important tribe in the state. Recent investigations have led many students of Indian history to suppose that the Winnebago were builders of the mounds. They have been phonetically assigned to the Siouan family of Indians, a family which originated on the Atlantic coast.

The Siouan tribes occupied a vast region, 70,000 square miles in extent, along the eastern foothills of the southern Alleghanies, from the Potomac on the north to the Santee river on the south, including all central Virginia, or one-half the area of the state, and two-thirds of North Carolina, and all the northeastern portion of South Carolina, with an Atlantic coast line of 200 miles in the Carolinas. The Carawba and other cognate tribes of the Siouan stock related by archeologists through a study of scraps of their language occupied parts of these regions down to a very late dale. This region is regarded as the "original home of the Siouan race.'" That the migration of the tribes of the plains was from the East is evident from "the older dialetic forms to be met with in the East, and the concurrent testimony of the Siouan tribes themselves." The language of the East was older in its forms then the cognate dialects of the West. The movement was doubtless by tribes and slow, constantly fighting their way along the pathway to their future home. After crossing the mountains they passed down the New and Big Sandy rivers to the Ohio, down which they slowly passed, remaining a long time at the falls of the Ohio, now Louisville. As early as 1701, Gravier said, the Ohio was known to the Illinois and Miami as the ''river of the Arkansa." The name of the tribe is now Kansa or Quapaw of the Winnebago branch of the Siouan stock, living then on the lower Arkansas river. Traditions of the Osage, Mandan and almost all the tribes confirm this. Two of the plains tribes, the Kansa, cherish sacred shells which they assert were brought with them "from the great river of the sunrise.'' It is possible that the Winnebagos also brought the sea shells with them. They have been found in large numbers in Wisconsin. Mr. Clarence Olen, of Oshkosh, has several picked up in Winnebago County. When the migration took place is not known. Doubtless it was of gradual progress during several centuries. When De Soto looked over the broad Mississippi from the Chaska mounds at Memphis in 1541 he found these "Capaha," or Kwapa, the southern branch of the Winnebago, already established on the western bank, though still a considerable distance north of their later location "down the river," the converse of Omaha, which means "up the river." In their slow march towards the setting sun the Kwapa probably brought up the rear, as their name lingered longest in the traditions of the Ohio tribes, and they were still near that stream when encountered by De Soto.

The principle reason of this movement from Virginia was the presence, both North and South of powerful and hostile tribes leaving them only one way of retreat across the mountains. As late as 1728, as mentioned by Byrd, the Iroquois had "an implacable hatred'' for "the Siouan tribes of the South," who still clung to their ancestral domain. From the mouth of the Ohio the Winnebago worked their way up the Mississippi. As they are first known from Champlain's map (1632) as located on Lake Winnebago it is supposed they made the journey by the Wisconsin river to the Portage into the Fox river, where they descended to the spot on the Doty island, under wide branching oaks and elms, which they occupied so many years. There is evidence in their traditional wars with the Illinois, the Menominees, the Potawatomi, Sauk and Foxes, that the maintenances of this Siouan wedge in the beautiful region of lake, forest and prairie, occupied very soon for hundreds of miles in all directions by Algonquin tribes, was attended by constant and bloody warfare.

The oldest map of the region, now known as Lake Winnebago and the Fox river, is Champlain's map of 1632, on which he names the "Nation des Puans'' on a lake named "Lac des Puans, " which discharges itself through a long river to Lake Superior. That the map was intended to represent Lake Winnebago and the Fox river is now accepted and seems the correct interpretation from the latter known habitat of the Winnebago. The map is said to be made up from information furnished by Western Indians visiting Quebec. It furnishes the evidence that both Lake Winnebago and the Fox river were the earliest names of all the physical objects in Wisconsin, and the lake has ever since retained the name given to it by Champlain, two years before any white man had been within several hundred miles of the state.

It was two years after the date of this map that Nicolet visited "Wisconsin in 1634, ''delegated to make a journey to the nation called 'Gens de mer,' People of the Sea, and arranged peace between them and the Hurons, from whom they are distant about three hundred leagues westward.'' The account of Nicolet 's journey was not published until 1643, nearly ten years after his visit, and then only mentioned as an incident in western travel, giving such vague description of places and topography that it was not until over two hundred years afterward that John G. Shea discovered, in 1852, that "Gens de mer." the People of the Sea, referred to the Winnebago, and that Nicolet visited Wisconsin and the year (1634) of his coming was not settled until 1876. In 1643 Jean Boisoean's map was published, in which he followed the main topography features of Champlain's map, placing "La Nation des Puans" on "La des Puans" and named the river from which it discharged "R des Puans.''

Charlevoix, who visited the tribe in 1720. names them "the Otchagras, who are commonly called Puans.'' Father Hennepin in his map 1697 has this same name spelled Ocitigan placed against Lake Winnebago. The name by which the Winnebago are best known to all the old French writers is "Puans" or "Puants." This is said to have been an erroneous retranslation by the French of the Algonquin name for the tribe, which was Ovenibigontz. It is from the English spelling, and the French Oui being pronounced as "we." and the free pronunciation of the Algonquin name, handed down in the Jesuit Relations, that the modern name is derived and the Bureau of American Ethnology have determined that the plural of Winnebago shall be the same as the singular.

Most writers have amused themselves by giving the reason why the Winnebago were called Puans. The French word for Ouenibigoutz of their Indian neighbors, the meaning of which was feted or putrid or foul-smelling as variously given. It has been noticed that as early as 1632 and 1643 the tribe and Lake Winnebago, where they lived, and the Fox river had all been named Puans. No one knows why their neighbors gave them this name. As long as 1720 Charlevoix had said they were called "Puans, for what reason I do not know." Yet he did try an explanation: "They seated themselves on the border of a kind of lake (Winnebago), and I judge it was there that living on fish which they got in the lake in great plenty they were given the name of Puans, because all along the shore where their cabins were built one saw nothing but stinking fish, which infected the air. It appears at least that this is the origin of the name which the other savages had given them before us, and which has communicated itself to the Bay." John G. Shea says their name Ouenibigoutz given them by the Algonquins, means "feted," therefore the French translated it by the "Puants."

The name of Puans was frequently more roughly translated "stinkards," as used by Augustin Grignon as late as 1857. In 1816 Mr. Biddle mentions, "the Winnebago, a bold and warlike tribe, who lived at Lake Au Paunt or Stinking Lake, now Lake Winnebago" and the eccentric student of English, Radisson, wrote of them in 1659, as at "the great lake of the Stinkings" while Allouez, before his visit to them, mentions their lake of "the Stinkards" in 1666, so that this "ill smelling" name has clung to the tribe through all the centuries down to the present moment.

The explanation of their name is simple when relieved from the numerous explanations that have been given, for the most part erroneous. Dr. Dorsey, a student of the Siouan language, says the Siouan root Changa or Hanga signified first, foremost, original, ancestral. Thus the Winnebago call themselves Hochanga-ra, "the people speaking the original language." The student of dialect can easily trace in the various spelling quoted above the attempt to reduce the gutteral sounds of the Winnebago name to a written language, though their explanation and definitions have often gone far afield. Their name as known to the whites, however, is not so easy to understand. The migrating Algonquin tribes despised the Winnebago, as they were of a different stock, speaking a different language, and tried at once to drive them out but these savages were no match for the Winnebago, who had the power by numbers or prowess to maintain their place in their new home. If the name by which they were called by these Algonquin neighbors, Ouenibigoutz had been translated at Quebec when first heard by the French, as mean, base or vile in place of Puans, it would have more correctly expressed as intended the extreme disfavor of their neighbors, and this is the rational explanation of the name which has come down to us as Winnebago.

Perrot, as related by La Potherie as the earliest traditions of the tribe, gives the circumstances of their fall as their disregard of others' rights. He says the nation was populons, very redoubtable, spared no one and violated all the laws of nature, as they were Sodomites, and even had intercourse with beasts. If any stranger came among them he was cooked in their kettles. They declared war on all the other nations, though they had only stone hatchets and knives. When the Ottawa sent envoys to them, they were eaten and then the nations formed an alliance against them, which occasioned civil war among themselves. They finally united all their forces in one village of five thousand men but an epidemic occurred which reduced them to one thousand five hundred. "Despite all these misfortunes they sent a party of five hundred warriors against the Foxes, who dwelt on the other shore of the lake, but they perished in a tempest." It is supposed this was on Little Lake Butte des Morts, as it had been stated the Puans resided on an island which it is supposed was Doty island, where they had lived from the earliest times and the Fox tribes resided on the opposite side of the lake from very early time. Reduced to despair and famine the other nations took pity on them, ceased to make war, and the Illinois sent five hundred men, including "fifty of the most prominent persons in their nation," to carry them a supply of provisions. "Those man eaters received them with the utmost gratitude," but at the same time meditated sacrificing the Illinois to the shades of their dead. A large cabin was erected to lodge their guests, but while the Illinois were dancing their bow strings were cut and the Winnebago "threw themselves on the Illinois and massacred them, not sparing one man, and made a general feast of their flesh." In a few years the Illinois assembled a large army, composed of all the nations, and came to avenge their dead. "Having reached the island (Doly island) over the ice they found only cabins—the Winnebago had gone to their hunt —traveling in a body—that they might not be surprised by the Illinois." The hostile army followed the hunters in the dead of winter, coming up to them on the sixth day. and laid siege to their camp. "So vigorous was the attack that they killed, wounded or made prisoners all the Puans except a few who escaped, and who reached the Menominee village, but severely wounded by arrows." He again refers to these traditional events as those of "the ancestors" of the tribe as he knew them, and which refers to "ancestors of" the Puans of possibly 1660. There is no record to say how many years before, though it is doubtless several score, for fifty years before La Potherie was published Rev. Jean Claude Allouez had told this same story of the massacre of the Winnebago by the Illinois as "about thirty years ago," which would be in the year 1640 "all the people of the nation were killed or taken captive by the Illinois, with the exception of a single man, who escaped, shot through the body with an arrow," and adds that when the captives were permitted to return to their homes this one was made a chief as having never been a slave. John G. Shea, commenting on this disastrous defeat of the Winnebago, says, if this strange event took place at all we must ascribe it to an earlier date than 1634, when visited by Nicolet, who found them prosperous, and we can hardly suppose a tribe almost annihilated and then restored to its former numbers in thirty years.

NICOLET COMES TO DOTY ISLAND

Jean Nicolet was the first white man to visit the Winnebago. He was sent over these unknown lakes and rivers by Governor Champlain to make a treaty of peace between the Winnebago and the Hurons of Canada. He visited them with seven Huron savages in the summer of 1634, returning home the next year. As he approached their village, word was sent in advance to announce his mission, and the Winnebago sent out envoys to meet him, who gave him a warm welcome and carried his baggage. Word was sent out to the surrounding savages, and a great council was held with five thousand men, who indulged themselves in a barbaric banquet, in which the choicest dish was six score beaver tails. This was the first council held with the Indians in the region erected into the State of Wisconsin. There is no contemporary narrative inspired by Nicolet which gives a hint of the place at which this council was held, or the location of the Winnebago village, which was the objective point of Nicolet's voyage. The habitat of the Winnebago during this period must therefore be sought from other narratives and maps, and these clearly show the Winnebago village of 1634, and for two hundred years thereafter, to have been at the foot of Lake Winnebago, and from the later accounts, which give a more exact locus in quo, on Doty island, on what is now the cities of Menasha and Neenah, on the Fox river, yet on the shore of Lake Winnebago.

It has been therefore stated that Champlain's map of 1632, made two years before Nicolet's visit named the "Nation des Puans, " on "Las des Puans." Also the map of Jean Boissean's of 1643 which is found in Lennox Library in New York, and published in "Jesuit Relations," has "La Nation des Puans, on "Las des Puans, '' which discharges through "R. des Puans." The next map to mention the tribe is that of Marquette. His journal of the famous voyage through the river valley was published in Paris by Thevenot in 1681, with his real map of the voyage. It places the "Puans" village at the foot of Lake Winnebago. The master of this voyage was Joliet, and his map also places the "Puans" village at the foot of Lake of the Winnebago. Father Hennepin also places the word "Ocitagan"' against Lake Winnebago on his map, dated 1698. He also was a traveler among them and this is his attempt to spell their own name, rendered by the Nicolet century while those of the next century, which show the village, all place it at the foot of the lake, which always bore their name.

There is no historic reference narrative of travel or maps which places the Winnebago at any location other than Lake Winnebago during the century in which Nicolet visited the region, nor until 1760 when they seem to have divided into three villages with their head village still on Lake Winnebago.

Perrot visited the Fox river region for a number of years, and took some of the Winnebago with the other tribes to the great council at Sault Ste. Marie when Sr. Lusson took formal possession of the West, in the name of the French king. In 1690, while in this valley, the Fox tribes who resided on the west shore of the Little Lake Butte des Morts, contemplated treachery to Perrot, and he was informed of their intentions by the "chief of the Puans," who acted as his messenger and remained his steadfast friend. He advised and helped to prevent the Foxes making an alliance with the Iroquois of New York. which they contemplated, and Perrot was determined to prevent.

Later in the long Fox war they formed a third party in an alliance between the Foxes and Sauk, and were ever present with the Foxes in that long battle which they raged against the French throughout the Fox river valley and the prairie of the Illinois. This was the war to save the region of the golden fleece to the fur trade of France, in which the war whoop of the Foxes was heard around the world "a dreary half century of spasmodic conflict, which absorbed the attention and helped to drain the treasury of New France, contributing not a little to her downfall'' meanwhile, as Bancroft remarks, the ''Foxes were a nation, passionate and untamable, springing up into new life from every defeat, and though reduced in the number of their warriors, yet present everywhere by their ferocious enterprise and savage daring." Throughout those long years of frontier warfare the Winnebago were everywhere the silent allies, wearing the livery of the forest and committing the terror of their name to strike dismay to the border post. And though the Foxes are mostly mentioned the French were aware of close friendship to their allies, the Winnebago. As early as 1714 Ramezay had reported the Winnebago as friendly to the Foxes, which date the colonial office at Paris had determined on the extermination of the Fox tribe. At this time Father Marest writes the governor that "the Puans were sixty brave men, all boatmen. ''

The long enmity between the Winnebago and the Illinois was a part of the French war, and a relic of ancient days when the Winnebago had been almost destroyed by the Illinois. The Winnebago were with the Foxes in their raids against this tribe in 1723. Captain DeLignery was sent up the river in 1724, and called a council of the tribes at the old French fort at Green Bay. Those present were the Winnebago, Foxes, and Sauk. The council to induce the tribes to cease their war on the Illinois was fruitless, as the Winnebago declared the Illinois retained some of their tribe prisoners and an exchange must be effected before a treaty. However, the difference seemed to have been compromised, as at a council held by the same officer June 7, 1726, with the Winnebago, Foxes, and Sauk, a treaty was settled by which these tribes consented not to fight the Illinois again. Very soon after this, however, war broke out afresh and the frontier rang with the savage war cry. The French had sent an army against the Fox palisade or Fort village on the west shore of Little Lake Butte des Morts, under de Louvigny, in 1716, opposite the Winnebago village on the eastern shore. The three days' battle and siege had resulted in a treaty of peace, but in which the French had no confidence. They determined to establish a post in the border of the Sioux country to prevent an alliance with the Foxes and that powerful tribe of the plains. This equipment with soldiers and good for trade made their way over Fox river towards the head of Lake Pepin, to establish this post. The journal of the voyage was made by Father Guignes. As they passed the Fox river he says of the visit to the Winnebago, August 14. 1727: "The chief met him there three leagues from their village with peace calumets and refreshments of bears' meat, and escorted them into their village mid discharge of musketry and great demonstrations of joy, requesting Ihem to remain some time. There were sixty to eighty men in the village. Both men and women are tall and well built. They are located on the borders of a pretty lake at thirty-five miles from LaBaye and eight leagues from the Foxes." The Foxes seem to have been on the upper Fox river at this season.

When Captain DeLignery arrived at LaBaye with his expedition against the Foxes, composed of four hundred fifty Frenchmen and one thousand two hundred savages, in the month of August, 1728, he captured three Winnebago whom he handed over to the tribes. They put them to death with slow torture and ate them. He then pushed on up the Fox river to the village of the Winnebago on the Doty island, which had been abandoned several days before, and burned the wigwams and fort, and ravaged their fields of Indian corn, which is their principal article of food.

In pursuance of their policy to combine all the tribes against the Foxes, the French in some manner bought over the Winnebago, the lifelong friends of the Foxes and Sauk. So we read that in the autumn of 1729 word was brought to Quebec by information given by the Indians, of an attack by the Winnebago, Ottawa and Menominee on a Fox village, in which there were killed one hundred Fox warriors and seventy women and children. Among the killed of the assaulting party were four of the Winnebago. The Winnebago having broken up their neighbors and friends, the Foxes, by the treacherous and unprovoked slaughter, were now in terror for the consequences of their miserable acts. Further attempts against the Fox tribe were projected from Quebec and by the fall of 1729 Sieur Captain Marin appeared at the old Freuch fort at Green Bay and repaired its fallen roofs. He had with him ten Frenchmen. On September 10 the Winnebago returned from their hunt and went to Marin to assure him that they still remained faithful to the French, presenting him with three slaves. They were rewarded by powder, bullets, hatchets, guns and knives. Some days after, having ascertained that the Foxes were not in the country, the Winnebago took their families and camped on Dendo island, where "their former fort stood." But very soon the Foxes and Sauk surprised some Winnebago fisherman, and then began a long siege of the Winnebago, by erecting on the Doty island water side two forts to command the water in all directions. The siege lasted two months but was finally abandoned after Marin came with the Menominee to aid the Winnebago.

Before 1739, after being at enmity with the Foxes for ten years, the old friendship was revived, and at a council in Quebec, held that year with the western savages, the Winnebago chief spoke for mercy for the Foxes, some representatives of whom were present. The following year, at a council held in Montreal, the Winnebago chief again spoke for the good will of the French for "their kinsman, the Foxes and Sauk." The next year they appeared in Montreal again and reported they had returned to their home on Doty island. While at a council at Quebec the next year the Mayoba, chief of the Mascoutins, whispered to Beauharnois that the Winnebago sought refuge in their village the year before, as they feared the Foxes. At this council the Winnebago said half of their village had returned to its old home and half was at Rock river. The Rock river band were notified to join the Fox river band and form one village. Scrotchon and Chelanois were Winnebago chiefs present and promised medals by Beauharnois but he had none then to bestow, they must wait until next year. Sieur de Clignacourt had sole right in 1747 to trade at Green Bay with the Winnebago.

By some very ancient maps in possession of Mr. Hames B. Albrigt, of Milwaukee, which bear dates of 1755, 1756, 1757, the "Otchagras" village is marked against Lake Winnebago. About this time the De Langlades had settled in Wisconsin as the first pioneers, and in a few years the great war between France and England has its influence on this farthest frontier, where the bold warrior, Captain Charles de Langlade, was appointed to command the western tribes. With his motley throng of savages there were about one hundred Winnebago, and midst the din of Braddock's defeat was "mingled the blood curdling screech of the Winnebago." They were at the council, with Montcalm, on the banks of Lake George and at the massacre of Fort William Henry, and at the fall of Quebec.

After the Fleur de Lis was hauled down from Quebec and England took all Canada under their authority, commandants and soldiers were sent west to assume command of the ancient border posts, which had been under the gentle sway of France since the first white men came. By 1762 Lient. James Gorrell was in command of the remnants of the old French fort at Green Bay, and held a council with the Winnebago chief, who promised to send the belt he had received to the other two chiefs of his nation. He reports soon after that "a chief belonging to a second Puans town arrived." In August the Winnebago chief from the third town came and declared he had never fought against the English. They requested a gunsmith, a trader and rum. The following summer (1763), when Captain Etherington, after the massacre at Old Mackinaw, sent word to Gorrell to go to him with the garrison, the Winnebago were among the four Indian tribes which formed his escort.

In his Journal Lieut. James Gorrell reports of the "Indian warriors, besides women and children depending on the post at Green Bay," there were "Puans, 150 at the end of Puan's lake (Winnebago) and over against Louistonant." It was in 1766 that the celebrated Capt. Jonathan Carver made his voyage up the historic Fox river and passed four days enjoying the hospitality of the Winnebago village on Doty island, then presided over by their Queen, Glory of the Morning, or Hopokoekan, who had married Sebrevoir De Carrie, an officer of the French army, who after resigning in 1729 became the first trader among the Winnebago. Three sons and one daughter were born to the union. He reentered the army and died for his flag before Quebec, April 28, 1760. Captain Carver called the village "the great town of Winnebago," and said it contained fifty houses which were strongly built with palisades.

During the war of the Revolution there was not a friend of the colonists in all Wisconsin, and Capt. Charles de Langlade, now in the red uniform of a British officer, recruited his dusky troops from among the Winnebago to join Burgoyne's invasion, but all had abandoned the English general before his surrender. The Winnebago received a war belt from De Peyster, in command at Old Mackinaw, and had notice to be ready to go to Hamilton's aid, at Vincennes, in the autumn of 1778. In the party of savages who went down the Mississippi in the spring to aid Hamilton, but returned on receiving word of his surrender to Greorge Roger Clark, there were Winnebago. On their return to old Mackinaw with Goutier the Winnebago were at once sent (in June. 1779) south through Michigan to commit depredations and "bring in some prisoners." The Winnebago repaired to Montreal with other western savages under De Langlade, and returned on news of the operations of George Roger Clark in Illinois. When Lieutenant-Governor Sinclair sent the army of savages under Captain de Langlade to the massacre of St. Louis, there was a band of Winnebago, as usual, in his party. The assault on the embankment at the stone warehouse was made by the Winnebago, who left one chief and three warriors dead on the parapet, while four others were badly wounded, the only casualty of the expedition. Governor Sinclair reports in July, 1780, sending sixty Winnebago and a party of other Indians south to the Ohio and Wabash rivers to intercept convoys of provisions intended for Americans in the Illinois region.

After the close of the Revolutionary war the British fur trader had no intention of giving up the rich fur bearing region of Wisconsin, and began at once to keep the savages in good feeling, by a liberal distribution of presents, an annual favor which was accorded the Winnebago and others for many years and until after the close of the last war in 1815. At the instance of the merchants of Montreal in 1787, after the cession of the region now Wisconsin, the British sent Mr. Ainsee up the Fox river to the Mississippi with a "canoe loaded with thirteen bales of goods" for presents to Wisconsin savages. At the Portage he "assembled all the Puants to give them a speech and made them presents of goods, rum and tobacco." In the same report Ainsee gives the number of Puants as 310 men in "the village of the Puants altogether."

The principal or head village of the Winnebago was still on Lake Winnebago, as it had been since long prior to the coming of Nicolet in 1634. The first record of any other village was the reference given from Gorrell in 1762. During the Revolution, when Goutier took to the woods on snowshoes to rouse the clans for the spring campaign in 1778, he mentions "the great village of the Puants of the lake, which was the strongest one."

Antoine LeClaire, a trader who settled in Milwaukee in 1800, mentions sending out "engages" to trade with the Indians, "on Winnebago lake to the Winnebago." The merchants of Montreal reported to the agents of the crown, in 1786, that the Winnebago numbered six hundred men, and had their first village only twelve leagues (thirty miles) from "LaBaye," and being on the road to the Mississippi, they are frequently troublesome to the traders passing. This system of claiming to own the river and exacting presents for the right to pass had been practiced for many years by the tribe, and had been a frequent cause of strife between the Winnebago on Doty island and the numerous traders obliged to stem the tides of the Fox river to reach their posts along the Mississippi river.

The frontier disquiet of the Indians, inspired by British agents, finally resulted in sending Mad Anthony Wayne into the border lands of Ohio, where he fought several successful battles with the savages, the most desperate and successful one being that near Maumee City, in Ohio, on the 30th day of August, 1794. The Winnebago had been led into these border troubles and were among the savages defeated in that disastrous battle. Mr. William J. Snelling relates that he remembers a Winnebago at the Wisconsin portage who met travelers with a human hand dangling on his breast, which he had taken from a Yankee soldier at Tippeecanoe, and says sixty Winnebago were killed in that battle. The last war with England was declared on June 19, 1812, by the President's proclamation. Before it was possible to reinforce the small garrison at Fort Mackinaw, on the island of that name, it was surprised and captured and held during the war as a rally outpost of the British, from which the savages of Wisconsin were constantly recruited to add to the frontier horrors of that war. It is said that after the capture of Proctor's camp in the battle of the Thames, bales of scalps were discovered on which had been paid a bounty by the British agents. The Winnebago took part in many of the important movements of the British on the western border. When Col. Robert Dickson, the "Red Head," gathered the tribes for the English in 1812, he ran into Green Bay with 100 Sioux, and enlisted Tomah and the Grizzly Bear with 100 Menominee, and a large body of Winnebago led by Teal, One-eyed Decorah and other chiefs. They voyaged over to Mackinac island and captured the fort from the Americans, July 17, 1812 without a blow, after which the Winnebago and Sioux returned home. In the spring of 1813, when Colonel Dickson rallied the clans again for the war, there sailed out of the Fox river on his train, beside the Sioux and Menominee, a considerable band of Winnebago under their chiefs. Old Decorah, Carrymaunee, Winnocheek, Pesheu, or the Wild Cat, Sausamaunee, Black Wolf, Sarcel, or the Teal, and Neokautah, or Four Legs, with Michael Brisbois as their interpreter. Arriving at Fort Meigs too late for the action, they retired to Detroit, from whence they sailed under Proctor and Dickson to Sandusky and attacked the fort so gallantly defended by the young Maj. George Croghan, where they were defeated. In June, 1813, Colonel Dickson emerged at Mackinac from a long sojourn among the Wisconsin tribes, bringing with him 600 savages and their families, to be sent to General Proctor as a part of his force. There were 130 Winnebago in the party. After eating nearly all of Proctor's available provisions and committing wanton depredations on the settlers' live stock the Wisconsin Indians returned home. During the winter of 1813-14 a delegation of Wisconsin savages visited Quebec, where they were warmly welcomed by Sir George Prevost. The Winnebago were represented by Lassamic.

The expedition under the British Col. William McKay, which surprised and captured the American fort Shelby at Prairie Du Chien, July 17, 1814, had with them a band of 100 Winnebago under their chiefs, Pesheu or Wild Cat, Sarcel or Teal, Carrymaunee, Winnocheek, Sar-ra-chau, Neokautah or Four Legs, and Black Wolf. As McKay's fleet of barges and canoes floated down the Wisconsin, a Winnebago was in the party of scouts, who went under cover of night into the town and captured a citizen, whom they carried away to get information. In deploying before the fort the Winnebago took post above the fort. Two of the Winnebago, discovering some hams in a house, mounted to the roof and began to tear off the shingles to gain an entrance and were both shot in the thigh. On the second day of the siege Colonel McKay assembled the Indian chiefs and requested their consent to an assault, but the Winnebago chief, Sarcel or the Teal, demurred, saying he and his people remembered taking part with the English in assaulting an American fort, when they were beaten back with terrible slaughter. Sarcel proposed to dig a trench in the sand and blow up the fort, to which Colonel McKay agreed but after a few hours labor the Indians tired of the work and refused to go ahead. After the surrender, and just before the time appointed for the Americans to give up their arms, a Winnebago cut off the finger of a soldier whose hand was thrust through a port hole in friendly greeting. In his reports Colonel McKay mentions the Winnebago as in the Indian contingent, and says of them that they were ''perfectly useless to him," and severely criticizes them. They would not receive officers' orders unless he "held a blanket in one hand and a piece of pork in another."

Col. Robert Dickson on his way to the British garrison at Prairie Du Chien in the fall of 1814, caught by the freezing of Lake Winnebago at Doty Island and forced to remain the winter, writes in the spring: "I shall move from this as soon as I can as the Puants are beginning to draw around me, and one had as well be in hell as with them." After the peace the British held a council June 3, 1815, at Mackinaw, between Sau-sa-mau-nee, Black Wolf, Neokautah or Four Legs, and forty warriors. Sau-sa-mau-nee was the orator for his people and his speech is recorded. Judge Lockwood reports their number in 1816 as 900 warriors, from estimates of the traders best acquainted with them. The treaty made with a portion of the Fox tribes November 3, 1804, which caused so much dissatisfaction among members of that tribe, was confirmed at a council held at St. Louis, May 18, 1816, at which those Winnebago present, residents of Wisconsin, confirmed that part of the treaty which was supposed to grant their rights in the lands of the lead region.

The Winnebago were involved in the immigration of the New York Indians by the range of their hunting grounds. The Winnebago and Menominee, August 18, 1821, granted to the New York tribes a ribbon of land diagonally across the state five miles wide, the strip crossing the Fox river at Little Chute. At this time the Menominee claimed all Green Bay and the shore of Lake Michigan to the mouth of the Milwaukee river and west to the Mississippi river in a northwest direction. The Winnebago claimed all the balance of the state north and west of the Fox river and Lake Winnebago. The following summer the New York Indians returned to urge a larger grant: but on coming into a council the Winnebago refused to concede any further grants and left in a body to go on their hunt. Before leaving, however, they were induced to favor the visitor with an exhibition of their war dance, pipe dance and begging dance, which are graphically described by General Ellis, who adds: "The Winnebago exhibited the largest, most perfectly formed men and women ever seen anywhere. The display of action and muscle in the dances struck the beholder with admiration and terror. The ring around the dancers of several thousand, all singing in chorus to the chief drummer, the voices of the Winnebago women prevailing in clarion tone above the whole." August 11, 1827, was a treaty concluded at the Little Butte des Morts, "the Hill of the Dead," on the west bank of the lake of that name, now in the town of Menasha, between the Winnebago, Menominee and New York Indians, by which the above tribes ceded their lands in the Fox Vallev to the United States. Lewis Cass and Thos. L. McKinney were the commissioners. This council was held during the Winnebago war, so called. It was attended by five thousand savages. Colonel Whistler, while on his journey up the Fox river from Fort Howard to join General Atkinson at Portage, remained with his regiment at the Little Butte des Morts as the Governor's guard until the close of the council, when he resumed his journey up stream. During the council the Winnebago were notified that they must give up the murderers. It is said to have been due to this council that brought the surrender at Portage the next month on the arrival of Colonel Whistler. There is a painting of the Little Butte des Morts council made by Lewis, "painted on the spot," in his rare portfolio of frontier scenes.

The Winnebago war took place in 1827. It was not a war, but only a widespread scare to the few pioneers who had come to settle in the far away lands of the west. Those who mention the events of that day generally agree that the energetic movements of Governor Lewis Cass, and the promptness of the militia under Gen. Henry Dodge, and the dispatch of General Atkinson with the United States army into the field, inspired the Winnebago with such respect for the power of the United States that the incipient disturbance was quelled before it was barely commenced.

As there were at that time nearly nine thousand Winnebago, they could have set the torch to the whole frontier before being conquered. At that period there was a small settlement of whites at Green Bay, another at Prairie du Chien., and possibly seven hundred people in the lead region south of the Wisconsin river. Fort Winnebago was then erected at Portage as a protection to the frontier from any Winnebago treachery.

By this time the tribe had very much increased in numbers, and were scattered all along the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. Mrs. John Kinzie reports in "Wau Bun." in 1830, two divisions of Winnebago Indians, "one paid by the agent at Portage and the other at Prairie du Chicn."' "The Portage division numbered between four and five thousand." At the Winnebago annuity payment in 1834, Mr. Henry Merrill says there assembled at Portage upwards of three thousand men, women and children. Mr. McCall reports in 1830, "Four thousand Winnebago in the nation." The smallpox scourge broke out in the tribe in 1834 and raged a fearful epidemic, from which nearly half the tribe died. The medicine men abandoned their futile attempts to stay its ravages, and the pest swept through the villages, and survivors fleeing before it, leaving their dead unburied.

The delegates who visited Washington in 1837 to make a treaty had no authority to conclude a treaty, and so declared. That was the treaty (Nov. 1, 1837) by which all the lands of the Winnebago east of the Mississippi were ceded to the United States. It was loudly proclaimed by the tribe to be a fraud. Chief Yellow Thunder, whose village was near Eureka, in Winnebago county, and two others were of this party, and all declared they had no right to make a treaty. The first attempt to remove the tribe was begun in 1840, when a considerable band were induced to remove to the Turkey river in Iowa. In 1837 the Winnebago, headed by One-eyed Dekaury, Little Dekaury, Winnosheek, Waukon Dekaury, and six other chiefs, went to Washington and ceded all the land still claimed by them east of the Mississippi river, reserving the privilege of occupying until 1840. That year the troops came to Portage to remove them. Yellow Thunder and Black Wolf's son were invited to Portage to get provisions, but as soon as they arrived at Portage they were put in the guardhouse with ball and chain on their ankles, which hurt their feelings, as they had done no harm. The General had understood they were going to revolt, and refused to emigrate: but as soon as Governor Dodge came to Portage they were released. They all promised faithfully to be in Portage in three days, ready for removal, and they were all there. Two large boats were provided to take down the Indians who had no canoes. At the head of Kickapoo creek they came to some wigwams, where two old
women, sisters of Black Wolf, fell on their knees, crying and beseeching Captain Summer to kill them they were old and would rather die and be buried with their fathers and mothers and children than be taken away. The Captain let them remain, and left three young men to hunt for them. Further down they came to the camp of Ke-ji-que-we-ka: the people were told to put their things in the wagon and go along. Depositing their belongings they started south from where they were when when Captain sent to ask where they were going. They said they were going to bid good-bye to their fathers, mothers and children. The interpreter followed them and found them on their knees, kissing the ground and crying very loud where their relations were buried. This touched the Captain, who exclaimed: ''Good God, what harm can these poor Indians do among the rocks."

After being removed at different times to locations in Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota, they were finally located on one hundred twenty-eight thousand acres of the northern part of the Omaha reservation in eastern Nebraska, containing some of the best timbered lands, by May, 1866. There still reside in the pine barrens of Jackson and Adams county stragglers who have returned, reported in 1887 to number one thousand six hundred. Most of these have homesteads where they live by picking berries, fishing and hunting, with ever increasing families. Large families are the rule among the Winnebago, Green Grass, son of Kayrahmaunee, came to the payment at Black River Falls to draw for fifteen children: but could not count or name them. Major Halleek, the agent, bad him bring them in and stand them in a row.

"The Winnebago as a tribe has due them $883,249.58 under their treaties of 1837 and the act of July 15, 1870, which has not been capitalized and placed in the treasury as a trust fund. Congress annually appropriates 5 per cent interest on the principal, amounting to $44,162.47. The Wisconsin band received $18,026.13 of that amount, which is paid them in cash. They also receive 7,000 each year from that amount to equalize their payments with the Nebraska branch under the act of 1881. Under that act they have received $147,000 and $73,969.91 is yet due them in yearly installments of $7,000. The Nebraska branch receives yearly $10,000 cash for per capita payments, and after this and the amounts due to the Wisconsin branch are deducted the remainder is subject to expenditure for supplies for the Nebraska branch. Eventually the Wisconsin branch will receive their share of the principal after it has been capitalized and segregated."

THEIR HABITS AND DOMESTIC LIFE

There are at this writing 1,180 Winnebago listed in Wisconsin and 2,613 in Nebraska, making a total of 3,703 or about 4,000 Winnebago now living. This shows an increase in 200 years of 700 per cent, due to enforced peace and notwithstanding the natural decimation due to smallpox, famine, habits and whisky.

Rev. Cutting Marsh crossed Doty island in 1832, and found still there a small village of Winnebago. This was the remnant of Four Leg's tribe. He was dead two years before. Three years later the Menominee mission was established at Neenah, before which time, it is presumed, the last of those who had made this ancient village famous in border annals had moved up the river and away.

The totems of the Winnebago were the lynx, catamount, wild cat and stag. They dressed in the earlier days much as the primitive tribes, in the tanned skins and furs of the wild animals, as also in woven cloth. The special manner of doing their hair was to shave the sides of the head and do the hair in two square cushions on the back of the head. The artist in the Nicolet landfall, recently hung in the rooms of the State Historical Society, has taken their nakedness too literally and made a caricature of their nudeness. There is no authority for such literal nakedness. They were an industrious and thrifty people, having at all their villages wide fields of corn and vegetables. Some of these fields were several hundred acres in extent. They gathered wild rice for food also. Sat. Cark told Dr. Lapham that General Atkinson purchased 6,000 bushels of corn from the Winnebago and in 1848 he had driven over half a mile of old Indian cornfields in Columbia county, which a pioneer had told him the Winnebago had cultivated. Their villages contained well constructed, warm cabins or wigwams, and they appeared to enjoy prosperity, notwithstanding their history contains so much war, pestilence and whisky.

Whatever may have been the truth of the matter, they seem to have the universal hatred or disfavor of all their neighbors and the whites. The whites write them down invariably filthy. It is such a general charge that one might be inclined to suppose it to be repeated by suggestion. Whether any one took the trouble to inquire if this was a domestic infirmity or only came from the supposed derivation of their name we cannot learn. One hundred years ago Capt. Thomas A. Anderson wintered on Rock river, at the foot of a precipice, 300 feet above the river, trading with the Winnebago, and long afterward said. "They are the most filthy, most obstinate and bravest people of any Indian tribe.'' As an instance of their independence. Hon. Morgan L. Martin relates of the guide he procured at Taycheedah, who, after leading them into the prairie, lay down and refused to proceed, saying "he had never yet been the slave of a white man and never would be."

The numerous missionaries who had gone among the Wisconsin savages seem to have made little progress with the Winnebago. The first to devote himself specially to one of the bands was Rev. Father Mazzuchelli, who. April 16, 1833, visited the Winnebago at the old Decorah village, eight miles up the Wisconsin river from Portage. Two hundred converts were made, and he translated Father Barago's Catechism from Ottawa to Winnebago, going 700 miles to Detroit to get it printed, and returned. Pietre Paquette assisted him in talking to the savages. The Catechism when returned had eighteen pages. The influence of the missionary was such that on Mrs. Kinzie's offering wine to one of the Indian women she pointed to the cross about her neck and refused to drink.

From the earliest settlement bands of Winnebagoes had, at different times, established their villages temporarily in several parts of the county no permanent location was made until right after the war of the rebellion, when a considerable number, under the chief, Ah-oo-cho-ka or "Blue Wing,'' settled near Water Mill, a few miles north of Tomah.

"Blue Wing" was the head of this branch of the tribe and was its chief spokesman in the councils of the tribe held at the original settlement near Winnebago Lake. He was a quiet, peaceful man, who ruled his tribe with justice, whose good qualities made him many friends among his white neighbors and the business and professional men in Tomah with whom he had dealings he lived to the age of 103 years, and at his death he was held in
such esteem that a public funeral was held in the Methodist church at Tomah, largely attended by the town people and his neighbors a striking illustration, indeed, of the transition from savagery to civilization, a modern funeral service held over the remains of a savage attended by his own people. After the death of "Blue Wing" there was no succession as chief as the band had gradually taken up land and were, and are, getting away from the tribal relations. They in common with other members of the tribe were moved to Nebraska at the time mentioned in this chapter, but this band of about 200 came back and settled again at Water Mill, where they among them owned quite a tract of
land. They enlisted the services of Harry Lea, of Tomah, who had traded with them for years, and he divided the land into ten-acre pieces, assigning one or more to the head of each family so that they became land owners and could not then be taken back to Nebraska.

In this band were two Indians who were in the army during the rebellion, an old follow familiarly known in later years as "Sherman'' because he served in the Third Wisconsin and was under General Sherman, and also a son of Chief "Blue Wing, known as "Thunder Chief."

Among them exists a secret religions organization which has been in existence no one knows how long. It has an otter skin badge, to lose which is said to invoke a death penalty they indulge in strange and fantastic rites and ceremonies, and no white man has ever been able to discover any of their secrets. The squaws of different branches of the tribe in general are known by the kind of work they turn out. This particular branch was noted for the beautiful bead work turned out by its women, everything from moccasins and hair bands to entire suits of buckskin, beautifully decorated in most elaborate patterns. Some of the children are sent to the Government Indian School at Tomah, although it seems to be the case that only a small percentage take advantage of the education thus acquired, but go back to the indolent tribal life.

History of Monroe County, Wisconsin, 1912
Past and Present
Including an account of the Cities, Towns and Villages of the County
Editor-In-Chief: Randolph A Richards
Illustrated
1912 C. F. Cooper & Co.
Chicago
page 12 TO 32


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The history of the Kennedy family in the engine business dates back to 1912 when William Patrick Kennedy introduced the otter trawl and the gasoline powered lugger to the seafood industry in Biloxi, Mississippi.

“In 1912, an odd smoke-belching craft chugged into Biloxi Harbor which was to change the course of the shrimping industry. W.P. Kennedy brought the power boat ‘Bernadino’ to town, rigged with a revolutionary kind of net known as the otter trawl. Kennedy asked local net-maker Henry Duggan to study the trawl until he could knit others and hired Johnnie Fountain to captain Biloxi’s first trawling expedition. On his first trip over the Deer Island bar, Captain Fountain caught forty barrels of shrimp with the new fangled rig.”

When Biloxi Was The Seafood Capital Of The World by David A. Sheffield and Darnell l. Nicovich.

W.P. Kennedy was the son of Patrick Kennedy, a pioneer citizen of Biloxi, who had immigrated from Gaulestown, County Kilkenny, Ireland and in 1892 established P. Kennedy & Company to engage in the shipping of raw oysters. At the height of production, twelve Biloxi canneries’ combined catch was 5,988,788 lbs of oysters and 4,424,000 lbs of shrimp and Biloxi had surpassed Baltimore’s production to become the seafood capital of the world.

In 1940 before America entered World War II, W.P. Kennedy’s son, William Patrick Kennedy, Jr. was co-owner of Kennedy Brothers Engine Company with his brother Frank that held the Caterpillar marine diesel and Lathrop gasoline engine Dealerships for the Gulf Coast area. At that time President Roosevelt agreed to furnish the British with wooden ships of various types sub-chasers, sea-going tug boats and mine sweepers. W.P. Kennedy Jr. “Big Bill” secured a boat building contract with the Navy Bureau of Ships and formed Westergard Boat Works of Biloxi, Inc. After Pearl Harbor was bombed, work began around the clock and on April 30, 1942 the first of two wooden submarine chasers (also known as PT boats), the P.C. 650, was launched. These craft were powered by two GM Pancake 16-184A Electro-Motive Diesels and after the completion of the P.C’s the Navy awarded the yard a contract to build ten mine-sweepers of the B.Y.M.S. (British Yard Mine Sweeper) Class. They were to be used in the English Channel and they were powered by two GM 8-268A Diesels. Following the mine sweepers, four Navy Harbor Tug Boats were built. The YT’s were sea-going tugs powered by two 500 HP Enterprise engines and designed for fire-fighting in the Normandy invasion. Each tug was named after an American Indian Tribal Chief Pesheway, Piomingo, Pitchlynn and Neokautah. After Navy contracts were completed, new private non-military boat building was continued until the shipyard was closed and “Big Bill” was awarded a Distributorship for General Motors GM Diesel Division for Mississippi, Alabama and western Florida. He founded Kennedy Marine Engine Company, Inc. and sold General Motors diesel marine engines and Packard marine gasoline engines. In 1949 he became a dealer for Lathrop gasoline engines, Onan marine gasoline engines, Palmer gasoline marine engines, Climax generator sets, Grey Marine and many other brands of boat equipment.

Upon entry into the trucking industry in 1965, GM Diesel was renamed Detroit Diesel and in 1980, Kennedy Marine Engine Company, Inc. became Kennedy Engine Company, Inc. The business moved from downtown Biloxi into a new 60,000 sq ft building facing Interstate 10. With the advent of tougher exhaust emissions laws, the 2-cycle engine was supplanted by the more environmentally-friendly four-cycle engine, but the legendary series of 2-cycle engines still holds an important place in the private marketplace and in military applications.

Today Kennedy Engine Company represents John Deere, Scania and FPT engines (Fiat Powertrain Technologies) in addition to the Detroit Diesel “classics,” and Kohler, Onan, Marathon, and Northern Lights generators. The company is still family owned and operated and continues to proudly serve the power needs of customers in the region and nation-wide.


Neokautah YTB-284 - History

Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon

[9] [Chief Yellow Thunder (1774-1874)] as a young man roamed through the beautiful country lying between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay tall and lithe, wise and observant skilled with spear ad bow. He fought with valor in the war of 1812, on the side of the British but returning home after the British campaign had failed he and his people remained peaceful for many years. He was wedded to an Algonquin girl whose father was the chief of a village near Portage. Because of his courage and wisdom, he was promoted to War Chief by his people who looked to him for direction and council. The whites were covetous of the lands occupied by the Winnebagoes and in 1837 he was invited to Washington to visit the president. Two young chieftains, the Elder Dandy and War Eagle accompanied him. When the subject of a treaty came up Yellow Thunder and his men declared that they had no authority to sign treaties. Their arguments were of no avail meant very little to the politicians who are determined to wrest the lands away from the Indians. They finally signed, giving away hundreds of thousands of acres for some land in Iowa. They were told that they had eight years in which to move but the treaty stipulated eight months. The Indians could not read and the portly pale face politicians must have had many a good chuckle over their fat cigars and heartwarming bourbon.

In 1840, troops arrived in Portage. The head men of the villages were invited to Portage by the military leaders who promised them many provisions. Arriving in Portage they were thrown into the guardhouse and fastened to ball and chain. They were released on their word that they would bring their bands to Portage within three days. Then followed a scene that for pathos matched the exiling of the Arcadians as portrayed by Longfellow in his "Evangeline." Put into boats, sent down the river, away from everything that had been dear to them away to strange lands with strange people, far, far away, ever to return.

Yellow Thunder did return, walked back from Iowa and arrived in his home territory long before the troops. The journey back, undertaken with his wife and a few of his band, was a matter of 500 miles. Sympathetic neighbors (he was a devout [10] Catholic) advised him to apply for a 40-acre homestead and his claim was honored at Mineral Point. He settled o the west bank of the Wisconsin about 5 miles below the Dells. Eulogized by the members of the Sauk County Historical Society, where the guide learned much from their archives, we hear one of them saying —

There he lived for over 30 years with his faithful family, his death occurring in February 1874. Yellow Thunder lived to see his land pass from barbarian to civilization his own race disappear and another take its place: "the dug-out gave way to floating palaces, Indian trails become railways burdened with commerce," and proud cities where once he saw his own villages. 1

During the course of Yellow Thunder's residence on his 40-acres he had several occasions to loan money to needy neighbors and the loans were always made with gold pieces. It was soon rumored by envious chieftains that the old Chief had accepted a huge bribe to sign the Washington treaty and he had made a deal whereby he could return from Iowa without any opposition. Anyone knowing Yellow Thunder's character would scoff at the gossip but rumors do get around and after his death a diligent search was made for his hidden treasure. The guide had heard the tale when working on the Upper Dells. It had been told to him by young Albert Yellow Thunder, a great-grandson. The youth had confided that the Chief's gold was buried in the Canyon. The two friends made frequent trips to Lost Canyon and it seemed that others had the same belief for there were many sand banks and soft sandstone patches that showed signs of having been disturbed. The guide found no gold but he did find a war-club that he prized. It was a vicious weapon with a head that resembled a black sparrow hawk. A large arrowhead protruded out to form a wicked beak. Young Albert's dad looked at it one day and astounded the guide by telling him that it was Black Hawk's favorite weapon. Albert's father was a prominent member of the Medicine Dance Lodge and well versed in the lore of his people and the area. He said that the "Great Rebel" had sought council with the Winnebagoes in 1830 — about the time that he was having trouble with white poachers on his Rock river lands — and he was trying to persuade the old Yellow Thunder to join the Sauk and Fox [11] leaders in their planned uprising against the encroaching settlers. The pow wow had taken place in the "Place of Buried Canoes" and many of the Winnebago warriors were sympathetic to the Sauk's cause but the council broke up in disorder when it was found that Black Hawk's sacred war bundle was missing. The famous War Chief had given a wonderful oration and when he attempted to bring forth his war bundle from his pony's saddle bag, to add emphasis to his confidence in the military adventure, he was shocked to learn that it had been stolen. The Winnebagoes were shocked too, for they not only knew that Black Hawk was doomed to defeat and an inglorious end — they also knew that someone in their own tribe had committed the unforgivable sin. Yellow Thunder's own daughter came under suspicion. It was known that she had a white soldier lover at Portage and it was obvious that she did not want her people to go to war against the Americans. The war-club must have been left in the Canyon during Black Hawk's second trip, undoubtedly after his defeat at Bad Axe river. It was an historical fact that the hunted leader had been captured in the Dells by two Winnebagoes, Chaetar and the one-eyed Decorah and turned over to General Street at Prairie du Chien. 2

Yellow Thunder Yellow Thunder Yellow Thunder, Chief of the Tribe, prior to 1874

Commentary. " Yellow Thunder" — in Hočąk, Wakąjaziga, which means "Yellow Thunderbird," a clan name of the Thunderbird Clan. It is a Thunderbird Clan name. Moses Pauquette adds, "He was a fine looking Indian, tall, straight, and stately, but had an over weening love for fire-water, — his only vice.." 3 Jipson gives a sketch of him:

This chieftain . lived on the Fox River about five miles below Berlin at the Yellow Banks. He was said to have been a man of great responsibility among his people and an able counselor to all their public affairs. In company with his wife, who was a daughter of White Crow, and later called the 'Washington Woman,' he made a visit with several numbers of his tribe to New York and Washington in 1828. He signed the treaty of 1829. In 1837, in company with several young men, he was persuaded to visit Washington and induced to sign the treaty made in that year. But he found that the terms of the treaty compelled him to go west of the Mississippi, he declared he would not go. But in 1840, in company with Black Wolf, he was invited into Fort Winnebago ostensibly to hold a council. When the gates were shut on them they were seized and conveyed beyond the Mississippi.

But Yellow Thunder soon returned, and visiting the land office at Mineral Point, he asked if Indians would be permitted to enter land. In receiving an affirmative answer, he entered forty acres on the west bank of the Wisconsin River. He is said to have built two log huts, and to have cultivated five acres of this land, raising corn, beans and potatoes. During his feasts about 1500 Indians usually gathered in his vicinity. In 1840, he was said to have had a summer village sixteen miles up the river from Portage.

He sold his land before his death which occurred in 1874. It is said that when he paid his taxes he placed in his pouch a kernel of corn for every dollar paid, and when he sold his land he demanded a dollar for every kernel. As he had been a devout Catholic his funeral services were conducted according to the rites of that church. He was buried near his homestead and near the grave of the Washington Woman and several other members of his family. 4

Yellow Thunder's forty acres has been precisely located in the SW ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 36 of Delton Township (T 13N, R 06E) in Sauk County. 5 The center of this property is located at 43.555933, -89.725647. After his death, it was purchased by John Bennett, whose land is shown in Section 36 of the 1909 plat map of Delton Township. Yellow Thunder and his wife were reburied 1.2 miles down the road from their homestead, where a monument marks their graves. This monument is located at 43.538273, -89.718491 (NW ¼ of NW ¼ of Section 7, Westford Township, Richland County). 6

Portage, Wisconsin

" Portage" — now the city of Portage, Wisconsin. To the Hočągara it was Wawá’ą, essentially of the same meaning. (Kinzie, Jipson, Miner) With respect to Europeans, the place was first used as a portage by the explorers Marquette and Joliet on June 14, 1673. To the French, it became known simply as le portage. A trading post was set up in 1792, after which a thriving business was conducted porting boats of any size over the mud flats using teams of oxen. In 1824, the American Fur Company hired the Hočąk translator, Pierre Pauquette, who was fluent in Hočąk, French, and English, to run its operations there. On the Fox River side of the portage, the government built Fort Winnebago in 1828. 7

Four Legs, 1827

"Elder Dandy" — known also as "Old Dandy," his Hočąk name was Hujopka, "Four Legs," known as Neokautah to the Menominee. His village was located on Doty Island. 8 This was described by Morgan L. Martin in 1828 as being, "On Doty's island, very near the mouth, on the west channel was the village of Hootschope or Four Legs, the well known Winnebago chieftain. There were from 150 to 200 lodges there, covered with bark or mats. We found Four Legs a very ordinary looking Indian." 9 In 1830, a Mr. McCall added, "There was in all 55, male and female. The chief's name is Four Legs. Took our dinner and returned to meet the chief at his lodge. Here we found them collected in all about 10 in number the head chief seated on his mat cross-legged in all the majesty of an Asiatic prince. After a profound silence, he arose from his seat and shook hands with each of us and addressed us in the Winnebago." 10 This same year, Juliette Kinzie described the village as, "a cluster of neat bark wigwams . at the entrance to Winnebago Lake, a picturesque cluster of huts, spread around on a pretty green glade, and shaded by fine lofty trees." 11 He is believed to have fought on the British side in the War of 1812, after which he set himself up as overlord in the Fox River valley where he exacted tribute for anyone wishing to pass through. He died in 1830 at about the age of 40 years.

He was survived by his Fox wife (portrait) who could speak fluent Ojibwe and generally acted as interpreter. 13

George Catlin
Old Decorah and His Family

"War Eagle" — more properly, "White Eagle" [Čaxšépsgaga], more commonly known as "Old Decorah." He fought on the British side during the War of 1812. 14 He was present at the Battle of the Thames when Tecumseh was killed. 15 It was he who brought the "Winnebago War" to a close by handing over Red Bird and his associates to General Atkinson, after he himself had been held hostage at Prairie du Chien. 16 His village was originally located Puckaway Lake, but in 1793 he moved about two miles above Portage, then in 1816 he moved another 6 miles up the river. In 1834, his village was located about eight miles below the Portage. 17 When he died at Peten well, April 20, 1836, at about 90 years of age, his village was the largest, containing over 100 lodges. 18

U. S. A. Coin Book
Twenty Dollar Gold Piece, 1878

"gold pieces" — this is the Twenty Dollar Gold Piece, the 1876 dollar is now (2015) estimated to be worth about $228 dollars, so the gold piece, in terms of purchasing power, would now be $4,560.

"Albert Yellow Thunder" — an important informant for Don Saunders, and is pictured in more than one of his books.

Google Topozone
Lost Canyon Map Showing Lost Canyon

"Lost Canyon" — this is located south of Lake Denton about 2.5 miles south of Wisconsin Dells, coordinates 43.5943018°N, -89.7807249°W.

NAA 1915
A Hočąk Spiked Warclub

"warclub" — this is a club of roughly the sort shown above.

Black Hawk The Surrender of Black Hawk The Life Cast of Black Hawk

"Black Hawk" — Mahkatēwi-meši-kēhkēhkwa ("Big Black Hawk") was a Sauk Warleader and chief of the British Band, who gave his name to the Black Hawk War of 1832. He was born in 1767 on Rock Island in the village of Sakenuk, the son of a prominent medicine man, Pyesa. His father took him on a raid against the Osage when he was 15 years old. There he won his first war honor, killing and scalping an enemy. At age 19, he led a large, successful raid of 200 warriors against the Osage. He inherited his father's Medicine Bundle when Pyesa was KIA in a war against the Cherokee. His difficulties with the white Americans began when he opposed the cession of land made in the 1804 treaty of St. Louis. When war with the American state broke out in 1812, Black Hawk allied himself with the Crown. The British gave him the rank of Brigadier General and command over the Indian allies headquartered at Green Bay. Black Hawk's warriors fought in numerous engagements, but in 1816 were obliged to sign a peace treaty with the U. S. recognizing the stipulations of the Treaty of 1804. In 1828, Sauk representatives consented to remove their tribe west of the Mississippi, but Black Hawk with many followers, refused to recognize this treaty's legitimacy. In 1830 and 1831, he made non-military incursions east of the Mississippi without reoccupying the land. In April, 1832, he moved his British Band of 1500 people back into Illinois, but hoped for allies did not materialize, and he began a withdrawal. His retreat was intercepted by the Illinois Militia at Old Man's Creek, and the Battle of Stillman's Run ensued, in which Black Hawk's forces routed the militia. The Sauk then moved north into what is now Wisconsin, headed for the village of White Cloud, the Winnebago Prophet. Only a few of the Hočągara had joined his force, which was made up of Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, and later some Potawatomies. In a series of battles in Wisconsin, Black Hawk's force suffered serious attrition, culminating in the massacre at Bad Axe. At Prairie du Chien on August 27, 1832, Black Hawk surrendered to Gen. Joseph Street. Black Hawk, along with less than a dozen other leaders, were imprisoned for eight months at Jefferson Barracks. President Jackson, wishing to impress upon these leaders the true strength of white America, sent them on a tour through the east to Washington, where he met them in person. They proved to be quite an attraction in all the cities through which they passed. From Washington they were sent to prison at Fortress Monroe in Norfolk, Virginia, for six months. After their imprisonment, they were sent on a tour back to the west, where they received a positive reception in the eastern cities, but often a negative response in those places closer to the action of the war. In 1833, Black Hawk's autobiography was published. Black Hawk returned to live with his people in Iowa where he died on October 3, 1838. 19

The Battle of Bad Axe

"Bad Axe" — this is the Battle of Bad Axe, a massacre that ended the Black Hawk War. After their defeat at Wisconsin Heights, July 22, 1832, the Sauks retreated west intending to cross back over the Mississippi. At this point, their Potawatomi and Hočąk allies had slipped away, and starvation had taken a heavy toll among the remainder. On August 1, they reached the Mississippi River with the Army in hot pursuit. During the day, an action of a couple of hours ensued, with significant casualties among the Sauk. Black Hawk decided that rather than crossing the Mississippi under the guns of the U. S. Army, that it was more prudent to flee north. However, a great many of the band refused to follow him further. Most of the force and the civilians trying to escape, were trapped against the river. The gunboat Warrior entered the fray as most of the Sauks attempted to cross the Mississippi. The result was a massacre. Those who did not drown were shot. The fate of those who succeeded in crossing the river was not much better, as the pursuing Dakota allies of the government brought back 68 scalps and 22 prisoners. Black Hawk himself, accompanied by a small band of survivors, escaped north, but on 27 August 1832, under the urging of the Hočągara, he surrendered at Prairie du Chien. The 120 prisoners held by Gen. Scott were released before the end of August. 20

J. O. Lewis
Wajᵋxetega, Big Canoe, 1825

" One-Eyed Decora" — the third son of "Old Decorah." He is also known by the name "Big Canoe." He distinguished himself in action against the British, for which see, "The Origin of Big Canoe's Name."

Gen. Joseph Street

"General Street" — General Joseph Montfort Street (October 18, 1782 – May 5, 1840), was a frontiersman in the old Northwest Territory, and a friend of Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and Zachary Taylor. After a stormy career as a newspaper owner in Kentucky, he established himself in Shawneetown, Illinois, in 1812. He was made general of the local militia. In 1827 he became the Indian agent to the Hočągara. He attempted to keep white settlers out of the lands reserved for the tribe, but it proved a hopeless task, so he came to believe that Indian removal was the only answer. In 1832, he was able to keep most of the Hočągara neutral in the Black Hawk War. In 1834, the Fox and Sauk were added as his charges. This diffusion of his labors caused the abortion of his school for the Hočągara at Prairie du Chien, which closed the year that he died. 21

Prairie du Chien in 1830 by Henry Lewis

"Prairie du Chien" — its French name means, "Prairie of the Dog," and denotes a plain about 9 miles north of the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers. On an elevation near the Turkey River, the Fox tribe had a large village at the base of which the Dog Band resided. It is from this Dog Band that the whole prairie took its name. The site of the present town was "the principal trading post on the Mississippi the depot of the fur traders the ancient meeting-place of the Indians tribes." 22 The area was gradually settled by French farmers, and once it fell under the sovereignty of the British Crown, many new British settlers as well. During the War of 1812,

The peculiar position which Prairie du Chien occupied in the Indian country at once pointed it out as a most important place — of the value of which both the hostile Powers were fully cognizant — from the fact that whichever army took possession of it could command that immense territory inhabited by the warlike tribes of the West . which lay along the west frontier of the United States . 23

The expedition of Zebulon Pike passed through the area and he noted the strategic character of this site and recommended to the War Department that they build a fort there, which was done in 1816 with the erection of Ft. Crawford. It was the frequent site of Indian gatherings for treaties with the United States government, and by 1823, Prairie du Chien was a major steamboat port, although in just a couple of decades, it was eclipsed by Minneapolis. 24

1 Harry Ellsworth Cole (1861-1928), A Standard History of Sauk County, Wisconsin (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1918) 179. What is quoted is an address given by James Hoyt Hill, Sr. (1882-1958) on the occasion of the dedication of a memorial to Yellow Thunder and his wife and their new burial site on August 27, 1909. Most of Don Saunder's account Yellow Thunder is either a direct quote from his address or a close summary or paraphrase.
2 Don Saunders, Temple Bells in the Pagan Dells. Historical . . . Mythical and Pictorial Review of the Beautiful Wisconsin Dells (Kilbourn: Wisconsin Dells Events, 1959) 9-11.
3 Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebago," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, XII (1892): 399-433 [431]. Thwaites, Notes to Wau-Bun, Caxton Club Edition (1901), 404 nt. 50.
4 Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 252.
5 A. B. Stout, "The Archeology of Eastern Sauk County, Wisconsin Archeologist," 5, #2 (Jan.-April, 1906): 227-288 [239]. Publius V. Lawson, History of Winnebago County, Wisconsin (Chicago: C. F. Cooper & Co., 1908) 1:68-69.
6 Find a Grave > Chief Yellow Thunder.
7 from the official City of Portage website (> History), viewed 1/2/18.
8 For Four Legs and his village, see See 3, Wisconsin Historical Collections, 286 5, W. H. C., 96 10, W. H. C., 74 11, W. H. C., 395 2, The Wisconsin Archeologist, 52 and 1906, Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
9 11, W. H. C., 395.
10 12, W. H. C., 187-188.
11 Juliette Augusta McGill Kinzie, Wau-Bun, The "Early Day" in the North-west (Chicago & New York: Rand, McNally & Company, 1873 [1856]) 62 [53].
12 Kinzie, Wau-Bun, 86 [71].
13 2, Wisconsin Historical Collections, 176 5, W. H. C., 96 14, W. H. C., 87 Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," Wisconsin Archeologist, 6, #3 (July, 1907) 78-162 [142-144].
14 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 103, 138.
15 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 139.
16 2, W. H. C., 167 13, W. H. C., 449 5, W. H. C. , 153 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 109.
17 3, W. H. C., 288-89 2, W. H. C., 178 7, W. H. C., 375.
18 7, W. H. C., 355-56.
19 Black Hawk, Autobiography of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, or Black Hawk, ed. John Barton Patterson (St. Louis: Continental Printing Co., 1882). William R. Smith, The History of Wisconsin, In Three Parts, Historical, Documentary and Descriptive, Part I, Vol. I (Madison: Beriah Brown, 1854) 221-406.
20 James Lewis, The Black Hawk War of 1832 (Illinois Humanities Council, 2000).
21 Reuben Gold Thwaites, Notes to Wau-Bun, Caxton Club Edition (1901), 404 nt. 49.
22 Alfred Edward Bulger, "Events at Prairie du Chien Previous to American Occupation, 1814," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 13 (1895): 1-9 [1-2].
23 Bulger, "Events at Prairie du Chien Previous to American Occupation, 1814," 2.
24 Mary Elise Antoine, Prairie Du Chien (Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2011) 7.


Various Models of Mobile Outreach Service Delivery

More Resource-Intensive ←→ Less Resource-Intensive

Classic Streamlined Dedicated Provider

  • Medical doctor.
  • Assistant medical/clinical officer for surgery.
  • Nurse for counseling and post-procedure care.
  • Driver for administrative tasks.
  • 1 or 2 nurses.
  • Driver for administrative tasks.

Where? Existing health facilities, schools, community buildings, tents, or mobile van. Existing health facilities, schools, or community buildings, or, in unique settings with limited mobility of women, a client’s home. Seconded to one or more health facilities.

Arrangement NGO-led and staffed, or NGO-coordinated and public sector-staffed. NGO-led and staffed, or NGO-coordinated and public sector-staffed. Providers may be attached to or employed by the facility, such as a district hospital, but are mobile to offer services at lower-level facilities or in clients’ homes.

  • Rural or hard-to-reach areas where travel time can be extensive.
  • Offers opportunity for capacity building to provide a range of contraceptive methods.
  • Fill gaps in peri-urban and urban settings.
  • When resources are more limited when number of medical doctors or clinical officers is limited when demand for PMs is low.
  • Facilities with heavy client volumes/ high family planning demand.
  • Introducing family planning services into existing complementary services (such as maternal and child health services).
  • Urban or rural application.
  • Host sites should have adequate infrastructure and medical equipment.
  • Must bring sufficient stock and equipment, which can require larger vehicles and frequent resupply.
  • Strong system must be in place for adequate followup care, particularly for clients receiving LARCs/PMs.
  • Host sites are usually better equipped, allowing teams to travel with less. Teams are able to travel by local transport, motorcycles, or smaller vehicles.
  • Strong referral systems are needed.
  • May be difficult to deliver services and build capacity in high-volume settings.
  • Where severe health staff shortages exist, absent mobile providers can pose a challenge to their home facility.
  • Coordinate with community leaders to identify appropriate locations. Distance from a service provider is not always the primary barrier for clients with unmet need for family planning. Barriers may also include inability to pay for transport or lack of contraceptive choice at a nearby facility. Consequently, mobile outreach services can be successfully deployed to address unmet need in rural as well as urban areas. Coordination with local government well in advance of outreach visits helps ensure that selected sites have appropriate space and that site staff are committed to accommodating space and other needs of the mobile team.
  • Map the geographic area. Mapping the location of focus communities within an outreach catchment area will enable service providers to identify appropriate outreach sites and effectively plan and schedule the mobile team’s visit. In Somalia, use of a geographic information system (GIS) map helped with the logistical planning and delivery of mobile outreach services by directing the ambulance and nurses safely to refugee camps in an area marred with long and prolonged natural and human disasters (Shaikh, 2008). (For more information about new technologies, see the Digital Health HIP brief at www.fphighimpactpractices.org/briefs/digital-health-systems.)
  • Ensure that sites are clean, safe, and private. Any site used for mobile outreach services needs to be safe and clean, and it needs to provide space for privacy during counseling, the procedure, and recovery. Adequate space can be a significant barrier for effective outreach service delivery.
  • Develop effective public-private partnerships. Mobile outreach service arrangements allow Ministries of Health and NGOs to work together in order to expand the reach of both partners to meet national health goals. These partnerships facilitate a holistic approach by filling gaps where services are lacking or providing technical assistance where services are limited. Although mobile outreach often has been seen as a stop-gap measure while building the capacity of under-resourced health systems, an increasing number of countries are experimenting with contracting relationships that position mobile outreach as an integral part of the health system. Formal contracting allows governments to commission mobile outreach services that are delivered, in part or fully, by private/NGO providers in collaboration with the public sector. These relationships leverage the clinical skills and geographic flexibility of private/NGO providers while allowing Ministries of Health to guide priority setting and allocation of resources.
  • Work with CHWs to assist with follow up and to refer complications to higher levels of service.
  • Use mobile phones and SMS for follow-up messaging.
  • Use hotlines for information about follow-up care.
  • Ensure mobile outreach teams are equipped to offer LARC removals, and ensure a strong referral network is in place to guarantee access to removals between visits.
  • Recruit and support dedicated staff. Recruiting and retaining trained mobile outreach providers—either from the government or through NGOs—is critical to the success of any mobile outreach program. Staff may be engaged on a part-time or full-time basis or may offer outreach services as part of their regular jobs. Travel demands and time away from family and community can be challenging, especially with the classic mobile outreach model that reaches rural areas. Thus, mobile outreach programs often struggle with staff retention. Staff work plans and schedule rotations should be reviewed regularly, and travel dates should be set in advance so that the arrival of the mobile team is predictable for both clients and providers.
  • Invest in sustained awareness-raising and communication activities. Clients in underserved communities often lack knowledge about family planning and have limited exposure to media and communication channels (Mwaikambo, 2011). Low population density in rural areas makes effective communication more challenging. Clients in peri-urban and urban areas, while more exposed to media than their rural counterparts, may still face information barriers stemming from poor educational opportunities and limited access to health information. Therefore, sustained awareness-raising through community channels is critical to the success of investments in mobile outreach service delivery. Clients of mobile outreach services frequently report that they first heard of the program either through word-of-mouth (friends, relatives, and satisfied clients), community health workers (CHWs), loudspeakers, radio, and community events (Eva and Ngo, 2010). (For more information about communication, see the Health Communication HIP brief at www.fphighimpactpractices.org/briefs/health-communication.)
  • Link outreach programs with CHWs and local clinics for family planning counseling, referrals, and community mobilization. CHWs typically live in the community they serve and are generally selected by the communities in which they operate. As a result, CHWs often have strong local networks and knowledge. Mobile outreach programs often engage CHWs to communicate the location and dates of mobile outreach service days. In addition, CHWs conduct demand generation, education activities, and basic family planning counseling a few days prior to the visit of the mobile outreach team. This helps to secure buy-in and to generate interest within the community prior to the delivery of services, offers an opportunity for direct referrals for services, and links to the nearest clinic in case of adverse events or need for method removal.
  • Anticipate and address challenges. Potential challenges range from transportation difficulties and logistics issues to client misinformation about family planning and ensuring follow-up care. Anticipating these challenges in advance and making plans for how to address them if they arise will help ensure mobile outreach programs are successful.

Expanding Contraceptive Choice to the Underserved Through Delivery of Mobile Outreach Services: A Handbook for Program Planners provides general guidance on how to design and implement mobile outreach family planning services and should be adapted to each country’s context. This handbook includes two tools as appendices: (1) minimum guidelines for managing an outreach program, and (2) a sample partner agreement. Available from: https://toolkits.knowledgesuccess.org/toolkits/communitybasedfp/expanding-contraceptive-choice-underserved-through-delivery-mobile

For more information about High-Impact Practices in Family Planning (HIPs), please contact the HIP team.


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3 Answers 3

This is a variation on @KevinY's answer with the major difference being the stations:

The design for the end station is fairly well defined, and mostly invariant:

When it comes to stations in the middle of the track, however there are two basic approaches @KevinY's proposal, a rise station and the similar but distinct dip station:

Which station you choose can vary on a number of factors they both perform the same task, and both do it well, but the dip station has a couple of convenient attributes:

When using only one button, access to this button is somewhat easier to achieve with a dip station.

Dip stations in tunnels require no extra headroom when compared to rise stations.

Dip stations do not require detector rails

While there is a risk of getting turned around due to high speed the risk of completely overshooting the station is smaller than with the rise station as proposed by Kevin. (This may or may not be what you want).

The easiest and least complex solution would probably be something like this.

This would be the first "station" in your minecart transit system. To use it, you would place a minecart on the unpowered piece of track and get in. From there, you can press the button, and because the button is technically occupying the block right next to the rail, it will power it, launching you to the right.

The reason this works is because there is a block directly next to the minecart when it is placed down, and powering the powered rail will start the minecart. You will notice that if you were to remove the block and press the button, nothing would happen. This is because the minecart "doesn't know which direction to go". This is important to note when building stations based on powered rails.

At a stop, you could simply do something like this. It is identical to your first station, except for the button being placed differently. Your minecart will stop on the unpowered sloped rail because powered rails act like a brake when unpowered. However, if the button is placed where it was on the initial station, it is hard to press due to being on a slope, so you have to raise it up and use wire to connect it to the rail. If it's your station, you can get out of the minecart if you want to continue to the next stop, just press the button.

This can be modified into a two-way station though the use of detector rails. This is what your middle stops could like like in a two-way transit system:

If you are approaching the station from the left, your cart activated the detector rail, turning the unpowered track on, and stopping you on the right side of the block (and of course, vice versa coming the other direction). However, if you approach the station too quickly using this technique, your minecart won't stop properly and it will touch the second detector rail, powering the rail you are supposed to stop on, and you'll keep on going. Just don't go overboard with the powered rails.

Williham Totland came up with an even simpler two-way station by using a dip instead of a rise, which I now prefer.



Comments:

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  2. Kazizil

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